Jews, Spain, the U.S., Israel, & Europe Melanie Rockoff
When & Why did Jews leave Spain? • Year: 1492 • King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella expel Jews (about 200,000) from Spain • Some Jews fled • Some forced to convert • Tens of thousands killed • Country unified behind Christianity
Ladino גודיאו-איספאנייול • Ladino, or Judeo-Spanish, is the spoken and written Hispanic language of Jews of Spanish origin.
Ladino גודיאו-איספאנייול • It is derived from medieval Castilian Spanish and spoken by the descendents of the Sephardim.
Ladino גודיאו-איספאנייול • Ladino did not become a specifically Jewish language until after the expulsion of Jews from Spain in 1492.
Ladino גודיאו-איספאנייול • Ladino has traditionally been written using the Hebrew alphabet; during the 20th century, Ladino was additionally written using the Latin alphabet.
Current Jewish population by country: • Israel: 6,042,000 • United States: 5,425,000 • Illinois: 297,935 • New York: 1,761,020 • California: 1,223,640 • New Jersey: 504,450 • Spain: 12,000 • Madrid: 3,500 • Barcelona: 3,500
Sephardic vs. Ashkenazi Jews • Ashkenazi: descendants of Jews from France, Germany and Eastern Europe • Sephardic: descendants of Jews from Spain, Portugal, North Africa and the Middle East
Jews in the United States pre-WWI • 1860: European Jews begin to immigrate to U.S. • 1882-1914: 2 million European Jews enter U.S. • Reasons: • Anti-Semitism & pogroms • Desire for better life/fresh start • Majority shift: SephardimAshkenazi • Jews flock to larger cities (NYC, Chicago, etc.)
Jews in Europe during WWII • 1938: Nazi-organized pogroms begin • Many Jews sought refuge in the U.S. (some in Spain, too) • 1941more and more European countries systematically deport Jews to concentration camps • Total number of Jews killed in the Holocaust: • 6 million
Israel • According to the Torah, God promised the land of Israel to the Jewish people • 11th century BCEKingdom of Israel • Roman Empire invadesJewish-Roman Wars • Mass Jewish genocide • 635 C.E. Muslims take over the land and rule for 1300 years • Jewish DiasporaJews look back to Israel to reclaim a homeland • 19th century Eastern European pogromsmore exiled Jews • Palestine holds increasing number of Jews
The U.S. & Israel • 1948Israel becomes sovereign nation recognized and supported by U.S. • Religious & political ties • Shared religious heritage • Democratic ideology • Jewish population in U.S. • Etc.