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  1. Alcohol Marketing and Young People. Ross Gordon Institute for Social Marketing: The Open University & University of Stirling Alcohol Concern Conference, London 2nd November 2010 ISM Institute for Social Marketing

  2. Marketing & Communication What is marketing? A means of influencing consumer behaviour Exchange / mutual benefit Several studies have shown that Marketing does influence behaviour

  3. Alcohol Market worth over £40Bn per annum in the UK. Marketplace consolidation → Global Brands → Bigger Marketing Budgets. Alcohol Advertising Spend of £202.5M in UK in 2005. Estimated total marketing spend was over £800M, much of which spent on → below the line channels. Not just advertising: Several marketing channels. (Keynote Market Report 2005, Alcohol Concern , Institute for Alcohol Studies 2004, Strategy Unit Harm Reduction project report 2003) Alcohol and Alcohol Marketing

  4. Alcohol and Alcohol Marketing Mobile/SMS

  5. Alcohol and Alcohol Marketing Snyder et al (2005) Saffer & Dave (2006) Collins et al (2007) other marketing communications Ellickson et al (2004) Hurtz et al (2007) point of sale price promotions mass media advertising Stacey et al (2004) Ellickson et al (2005) Collins et al (2007) television press billboards sponsor- ship branding merchandising Henriksen et al (2008) McClure et al (2006) Pasch et al (2007)

  6. Three recent reviews of the evidence base have suggested a causal link between alcohol marketing and youth drinking behaviour: Anderson et al (2009) Smith & Foxcroft (2008) Meier et al. (2008) Alcohol and Alcohol Marketing

  7. ISM Research Design & Methods Funded under National Preventive Research Initiative (NPRI) a collaboration of major research bodies and charities including: ESRC, CRUK, MRC, British Heart Foundation, UK Department of Health, Scottish Government. ISM carried out research to investigate the cumulative impact of alcohol marketing on youth drinking: Using a cohort design to investigate the impact of whole marketing mix used by UK alcohol industry Random sample of 13-15 year olds (period when most young people start experimenting with alcohol) Assessed for differences by levels of affluence and disadvantage, and by gender

  8. Sample frame of all 2nd year pupils on school roll in three local authority areas in the West of Scotland. Invitation packs sent out to all pupils. Selected a random sample of 920 2nd year school pupils (mean age=13) and conducted in-home interview asking them about drinking and marketing. Follow up with 636 4th year pupils (mean age = 15). Informed by two stages of formative qualitative research and pre-testing of survey. ISM Research Design & Methods

  9. Results • Adolescents’ awareness of alcohol marketing channels %

  10. Results • Adolescents’ involvement in alcohol marketing channels

  11. Association between alcohol marketing awareness and: initiation of drinking Controlled for: How many of their friends drink, whether their mum, dad and sibling(s) drink Demographics (age, sex, social grade, ethnicity and religion) Perceived parental/sibling/friends’ approval Liking of school, rating of school work, liking of adverts and liking of alcohol adverts Results

  12. Association between alcohol marketing awareness and: frequency of drinking Controlled for: How many of their friends drink, whether their mum, dad and sibling(s) drink Demographics (age, sex, social grade, ethnicity and religion) Perceived parental/sibling/friends’ approval Liking of school, rating of school work, liking of adverts and liking of alcohol adverts Results

  13. Results • Involvement with alcohol marketing at baseline increased their chance/risk of initiation of drinking at follow-up (adjusted OR = 1.31, P < 0.05). • initiation of drinking was also more likely among those with greater appreciation of alcohol advertising at baseline (adjusted OR = 1.272, 95% CI 1.005–1.610, P < 0.05).

  14. Results • Logistic regression found that uptake of fortnightly drinking was more likely among those with a higher involvement with alcohol marketing at baseline (adjusted OR = 1.43, P < 0.05) • Uptake of fortnightly drinking was also more likely among those with greater awareness of alcohol marketing at baseline (adjusted OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.005–1.234) • uptake of monthly drinking was more likely among those with a higher involvement with alcohol marketing at baseline (adjusted OR = 1.33, P < 0.05)

  15. Results • In summary the study found that: involvement with alcohol marketing at baseline was predictive of both uptake of drinking and increased frequency of drinking. Awareness of marketing at baseline was also associated with an increased frequency of drinking at follow-up. • Gordon et al. 2010 - The Impact of Alcohol Marketing on Youth Drinking Behaviour: A Two-stage Cohort Study. Alcohol and Alcoholism Vol. 45, No. 5, pp. 470–480,

  16. Alcohol and Alcohol Marketing • However there are still some gaps in the evidence base as identified in the House of Commons Health Committee report 2010 • Further research on new media and sponsorship, and level of exposure to marketing is required • That is not to say that there should be no action taken now • Given the evidence examination of the current regulatory system is required

  17. ISMInstituteforSocial Marketing THANK YOU Ross Gordon Institute for Social Marketing: The Open University & University of Stirling Alcohol Concern Conference, London 2nd November 2010