Daily Starter • When you get your composition books. • Open them to page 5. • Sit quietly.
What is geology? • Geology is the study of the Earth, the materials of which it is made, the structure of those materials, and the processes acting upon them. • What is a geologist? • A geologist is a scientist who studies: • The earth’s history (how it has changed and what can we learn from those changes) • The earth’s materials (what it is made up of and what it provides us) • The earth’s processes (landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, etc.)
Geologists have used two main types of evidence to learn about Earth’s interior: • Direct evidence from rock samples - rocks drilled from deep inside Earth allow geologist to make inferences about conditions.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2WbP4qVJo5Y • Indirect evidence from seismic waves – seismic waves produced by earthquakes allow scientists to measure the speed in which they travel giving clues to the structure of the planet.
Geologist have discovered 3 main . These 3 layers break down into: - the crust -the mantle -the core (inner core and outer core) Each of the layers vary greatly in size, composition, temperature, and pressure! Click here for Brain PopVideo
The Crust • Layer of solid rock that forms Earth’s outer “skin” • Includes both dry land and ocean floor • - Oceanic crust consists mostly of basal - Continental crust, or the crust that forms the continents, consists mainly of granite Basalt Granite
The Mantle • Layer of solid, hot rock 40 kilometers beneath the surface • Divided into layers • Lithosphere – uppermost part of mantle and the crust for a ridge layer about 100 kilometers thick • Asthenosphere – softer part of mantle below the lithosphere which is hotter and under increased pressure • Lower Mantle – solid material • extending all the way to Earth’s core
The Core • Made mostly of the metals iron and nickel • Consists of two parts: • Outer Core – layer of molten metal that surrounds inner core • Inner Core – dense ball of solid metal • Movement of liquid outer core creates Earth’s magnetic field
Daily Starter • Once you receive your INB make sure your Earth’s Layers foldable is complete and glued in accurately to page 6 of your Interactive Notebook.
At the very top of your page 6 write very small: • Answer: Rock samples and seismic waves • Title page 6: Earth’s Layers
On the back of the earth tab write the following: • CRUST • -Brittle, rocky, solid outer layer of Earth • -Cool • -6-70 km thick
On the back of the inner core tab write the following: INNER CORE: -solid ball -about 2400km in diameter
On the back of the outer core tab write the following: • OUTER CORE • - Earth’s only liquid layer • Made of molten iron and nickel • - About 2300km thick
On the back of the lower mantle tab write the following: LOWER MANTLE -solid and extremely HOT! -both the lower and upper mantle combined is about 2900km thick
On the back of the upper mantle tab write the following: UPPER MANTLE -soft, plastic like texture -cool -allows tectonic plates to move
FUN FACT: To get to the center of the earth from Earth’s surface you would have to travel 6,355km, that is 3,948.81 miles! (From NC to CA is only 2,652 miles.)
Daily Starter • Cut out your new note sheet on CONVECTION CURRENTS and glue it to page 7. • MAKE SURE YOU ARE GLUING IT ON THE CORRECT PAGE, I WILL START TAKING OFF POINTS IF YOU ARE NOT ON THE CORRECT PAGE!!!!!
Convection Currents • To explain how heat moves from Earth’s core through the mantle, you need to know how heat is transferred.
There are three types of heat transfer: • Radiation • Conduction • Convection
Radiation • The transfer of energy through empty space • Has no direct contact between heat source and an object • Example: Sunlight warming Earth’s surface
Conduction • Heat transfer by direct contact of particles of matter • Example: Metal spoon heating up in a pot of soup or a cup of coffee.
Convection • Transfer of heat by the movement of a heated fluid (includes liquids and gases) • Heat transfer by convection is caused by differences in temperature and density within a fluid. • Density: measure of how much mass there is in a volume of a substance • Example: Heating water on a stove - as water on bottom gets hot it expands, becomes less dense and rises; when the surface water starts warming up it becomes denser and moves to the bottom causing a convection current, or the flow that transfers heat.
Convection Currents • Convection currents flow in the mantle • The heat source is: • the earths core • and the mantle itself • These currents have been acting like a conveyer belt moving the lithosphere above for the past billion years.
Daily Starter • Open INB’s to page 8. • Sit silently.
How a convection current works – breaking it down! • First: • The density of mantle material is less than material above it, so the materials begin to rise. • Second: • The rising material hits the rigid lithosphere and cannot go up any further. • Third: • The force of gravity causes denser material to fall. • Fourth: • Core heat causes temperature to rise, therefore decreasing the density of material.
What is the result of convection currents? • Convection currents cause the plates of the lithosphere to move • The moving of the plates causes • Earthquakes • Volcanic eruptions • Building of mountains
Review Notes – Word BankGlue notes onto page 9 of your INB then complete using the word bank below • Drilling • Harry Hess • Climate change • Subduction • Fossils • Continental drift • Molten • Alfred Wegener • Land • Sea-floor spreading • Magnetic stripes • Pangea