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Daily Starter

Daily Starter

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Daily Starter

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  1. Daily Starter • When you get your composition books. • Open them to page 5. • Sit quietly.

  2. Earth’s Interior

  3. What is geology? • Geology is the study of the Earth, the materials of which it is made, the structure of those materials, and the processes acting upon them. • What is a geologist? • A geologist is a scientist who studies: • The earth’s history (how it has changed and what can we learn from those changes) • The earth’s materials (what it is made up of and what it provides us) • The earth’s processes (landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, etc.)

  4. Geologists have used two main types of evidence to learn about Earth’s interior: • Direct evidence from rock samples - rocks drilled from deep inside Earth allow geologist to make inferences about conditions. • Indirect evidence from seismic waves – seismic waves produced by earthquakes allow scientists to measure the speed in which they travel giving clues to the structure of the planet.

  5. Geologist have discovered 3 main . These 3 layers break down into: - the crust -the mantle -the core (inner core and outer core) Each of the layers vary greatly in size, composition, temperature, and pressure! Click here for Brain PopVideo

  6. The Crust • Layer of solid rock that forms Earth’s outer “skin” • Includes both dry land and ocean floor • - Oceanic crust consists mostly of basal - Continental crust, or the crust that forms the continents, consists mainly of granite Basalt Granite

  7. The Mantle • Layer of solid, hot rock 40 kilometers beneath the surface • Divided into layers • Lithosphere – uppermost part of mantle and the crust for a ridge layer about 100 kilometers thick • Asthenosphere – softer part of mantle below the lithosphere which is hotter and under increased pressure • Lower Mantle – solid material • extending all the way to Earth’s core

  8. The Core • Made mostly of the metals iron and nickel • Consists of two parts: • Outer Core – layer of molten metal that surrounds inner core • Inner Core – dense ball of solid metal • Movement of liquid outer core creates Earth’s magnetic field

  9. Daily Starter • Once you receive your INB make sure your Earth’s Layers foldable is complete and glued in accurately to page 6 of your Interactive Notebook.

  10. At the very top of your page 6 write very small: • Answer: Rock samples and seismic waves • Title page 6: Earth’s Layers

  11. On the back of the earth tab write the following: • CRUST • -Brittle, rocky, solid outer layer of Earth • -Cool • -6-70 km thick

  12. On the back of the inner core tab write the following: INNER CORE: -solid ball -about 2400km in diameter

  13. On the back of the outer core tab write the following: • OUTER CORE • - Earth’s only liquid layer • Made of molten iron and nickel • - About 2300km thick

  14. On the back of the lower mantle tab write the following: LOWER MANTLE -solid and extremely HOT! -both the lower and upper mantle combined is about 2900km thick

  15. On the back of the upper mantle tab write the following: UPPER MANTLE -soft, plastic like texture -cool -allows tectonic plates to move

  16. FUN FACT: To get to the center of the earth from Earth’s surface you would have to travel 6,355km, that is 3,948.81 miles! (From NC to CA is only 2,652 miles.)


  18. Convection Currents • To explain how heat moves from Earth’s core through the mantle, you need to know how heat is transferred.

  19. There are three types of heat transfer: • Radiation • Conduction • Convection

  20. Radiation • The transfer of energy through empty space • Has no direct contact between heat source and an object • Example: Sunlight warming Earth’s surface

  21. Conduction • Heat transfer by direct contact of particles of matter • Example: Metal spoon heating up in a pot of soup or a cup of coffee.

  22. Convection • Transfer of heat by the movement of a heated fluid (includes liquids and gases) • Heat transfer by convection is caused by differences in temperature and density within a fluid. • Density: measure of how much mass there is in a volume of a substance • Example: Heating water on a stove - as water on bottom gets hot it expands, becomes less dense and rises; when the surface water starts warming up it becomes denser and moves to the bottom causing a convection current, or the flow that transfers heat.

  23. Convection Currents • Convection currents flow in the mantle • The heat source is: • the earths core • and the mantle itself • These currents have been acting like a conveyer belt moving the lithosphere above for the past billion years.

  24. Daily Starter • Open INB’s to page 8. • Sit silently.

  25. How a convection current works – breaking it down! • First: • The density of mantle material is less than material above it, so the materials begin to rise. • Second: • The rising material hits the rigid lithosphere and cannot go up any further. • Third: • The force of gravity causes denser material to fall. • Fourth: • Core heat causes temperature to rise, therefore decreasing the density of material.

  26. What is the result of convection currents? • Convection currents cause the plates of the lithosphere to move • The moving of the plates causes • Earthquakes • Volcanic eruptions • Building of mountains

  27. Convection Currents

  28. Review Notes – Word BankGlue notes onto page 9 of your INB then complete using the word bank below • Drilling • Harry Hess • Climate change • Subduction • Fossils • Continental drift • Molten • Alfred Wegener • Land • Sea-floor spreading • Magnetic stripes • Pangea