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Dialogue Games

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  1. Approaches to dialogue Dialogue Games Part I: Peter Kühnlein

  2. Dialogue Games Characteristic of dialogue games approaches: Dialogue is viewed as consisting of pairs or sequences of utterances that can be seen as moves in a game.

  3. Dialogue Games Approach in case: Levin, J.A. & Moore, J.A., 1977: Dialogue Games: Meta-communication Structures for Natural Language Interaction, ISI/RR-77-53, USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way, Marina del Rey, CA 90291

  4. Dialogue Games Motivation • Studies of natural dialogue indicate that people interact according to • established patterns. • These have the following characteristics: They • are frequently recurring

  5. Dialogue Games Motivation • Studies of natural dialogue indicate that people interact according to • established patterns. • These have the following characteristics: They • are frequently recurring • span several turns

  6. Dialogue Games Motivation • Studies of natural dialogue indicate that people interact according to • established patterns. • These have the following characteristics: They • are frequently recurring • span several turns • exhibit goal-oriented organization

  7. Dialogue Games Motivation • Studies of natural dialogue indicate that people interact according to • established patterns. • These have the following characteristics: They • are frequently recurring • span several turns • exhibit goal-oriented organization • can consist of multi-sentential units

  8. Dialogue Games Motivation • Studies of natural dialogue indicate that people interact according to • established patterns. • These have the following characteristics: They • are frequently recurring • span several turns • exhibit goal-oriented organization • can consist of multi-sentential units • belong to speaker‘s knowledge

  9. Dialogue Games Motivation There is a wealth of implicit information in dialogue.

  10. Dialogue Games Motivation There is a wealth of implicit information in dialogue. Effective communication requires shared information, as witnessed by the possibility to comprehend indirect utterances

  11. Dialogue Games Motivation There is a wealth of implicit information in dialogue. Effective communication requires shared information, as witnessed by the possibility to comprehend indirect utterances Example: Person A: Do you have a match?

  12. Dialogue Games Motivation There is a wealth of implicit information in dialogue. Effective communication requires shared information, as witnessed by the possibility to comprehend indirect utterances Example: Person A: Do you have a match? Person B: Sorry, I don´t smoke.

  13. Dialogue Games Motivation Among the implicit information that is revealed in dialogues we find

  14. Dialogue Games Motivation • Among the implicit information that is revealed in dialogues we find • conventional knowledge about language

  15. Dialogue Games Motivation • Among the implicit information that is revealed in dialogues we find • conventional knowledge about language • „world knowledge“

  16. Dialogue Games Motivation • Among the implicit information that is revealed in dialogues we find • conventional knowledge about language • „world knowledge“ • knowledge of conventional reasons for behaviour

  17. Dialogue Games Motivation • Among the implicit information that is revealed in dialogues we find • conventional knowledge about language • „world knowledge“ • knowledge of conventional reasons for behaviour • We achieve goals through interaction with others

  18. Dialogue Games Motivation • Among the implicit information that is revealed in dialogues we find • conventional knowledge about language • „world knowledge“ • knowledge of conventional reasons for behaviour • We achieve goals through interaction with others • We know which responses to expect.

  19. Dialogue Games Motivation • Among the implicit information that is revealed in dialogues we find • conventional knowledge about language • „world knowledge“ • knowledge of conventional reasons for behaviour • We achieve goals through interaction with others • We know which responses to expect. • Sets of knowledge structures

  20. Dialogue Games Dialogue games - intuition Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are called dialogue-games (DGs). They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and the use of communication to achieve goals

  21. Dialogue Games Dialogue games - intuition • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are • called dialogue-games (DGs). • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and • the use of communication to achieve goals • A dialogue comprehension model is developed: • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of • language, especially indirect language use

  22. Dialogue Games Dialogue games - intuition • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are • called dialogue-games (DGs). • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and • the use of communication to achieve goals • A dialogue comprehension model is developed: • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of • language: • People`s behaviour is seen as behaviour of goal pursuing organisms: • goals determine the type of interaction they engage in

  23. Dialogue Games Dialogue games - intuition • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are • called dialogue-games (DGs). • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and • the use of communication to achieve goals • A dialogue comprehension model is developed: • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of • language: • People`s behaviour is seen as behaviour of goal pursuing organisms: • goals determine the type of interaction they engage in • Language use is a way of pursuing goals that speakers currently hold, • and the knowledge of participants‘ goals hence a central part of DGs

  24. Dialogue Games Dialogue games - intuition • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are • called dialogue-games (DGs). • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and • the use of communication to achieve goals • A dialogue comprehension model is developed: • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of • language: • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the • participants

  25. Dialogue Games Dialogue games - intuition • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are • called dialogue-games (DGs). • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and • the use of communication to achieve goals • A dialogue comprehension model is developed: • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of • language: • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the • participants • Example: • A wants to solve a problem, and interacts with B to arrive at a solution.

  26. Dialogue Games Dialogue games - intuition • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are • called dialogue-games (DGs). • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and • the use of communication to achieve goals • A dialogue comprehension model is developed: • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of • language: • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the • participants • Example: • A wants to solve a problem, and interacts with B to arrive at a solution. • (Problem solving)

  27. Dialogue Games Dialogue games - intuition • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are • called dialogue-games (DGs). • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and • the use of communication to achieve goals • A dialogue comprehension model is developed: • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of • language: • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the • participants • Example: • A wants some action performed and interacts with B to get her/him to • perform it

  28. Dialogue Games Dialogue games - intuition • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are • called dialogue-games (DGs). • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and • the use of communication to achieve goals • A dialogue comprehension model is developed: • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of • language: • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the • participants • Example: • A wants some action performed and interacts with B to get her/him to • perform it • (Action seeking)

  29. Dialogue Games Dialogue games - intuition • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are • called dialogue-games (DGs). • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and • the use of communication to achieve goals • A dialogue comprehension model is developed: • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of • language: • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the • participants • Example: • A wants to know some specific information, and interacts with B in order to • learn it

  30. Dialogue Games Dialogue games - intuition • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are • called dialogue-games (DGs). • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and • the use of communication to achieve goals • A dialogue comprehension model is developed: • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of • language: • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the • participants • Example: • A wants to know some specific information, and interacts with B in order to • learn it • (Information seeking)

  31. Dialogue Games Dialogue games - intuition • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are • called dialogue-games (DGs). • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and • the use of communication to achieve goals • A dialogue comprehension model is developed: • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of • language: • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the • participants • Example: • A wants to know whether B knows some particular information, and interacts • with her/him in order to find out

  32. Dialogue Games Dialogue games - intuition • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are • called dialogue-games (DGs). • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and • the use of communication to achieve goals • A dialogue comprehension model is developed: • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of • language: • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the • participants • Example: • A wants to know whether B knows some particular information, and interacts • with her/him in order to find out • (Information probing)

  33. Dialogue Games Dialogue games - intuition • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are • called dialogue-games (DGs). • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and • the use of communication to achieve goals • A dialogue comprehension model is developed: • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of • language: • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the • participants • Example: • A wants B to know some information, and interacts with her/him to impart • information

  34. Dialogue Games Dialogue games - intuition • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are • called dialogue-games (DGs). • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and • the use of communication to achieve goals • A dialogue comprehension model is developed: • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of • language: • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the • participants • Example: • A wants B to know some information, and interacts with her/him to impart • information • (Instructing)

  35. Dialogue Games Dialogue games - intuition • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are • called dialogue-games (DGs). • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and • the use of communication to achieve goals • A dialogue comprehension model is developed: • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of • language: • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the • participants • Example: • A is unhappy about some state of affairs, and interacts with B to convey • that unhappiness

  36. Dialogue Games Dialogue games - intuition • Established patterns represented as sets of knowledge structures are • called dialogue-games (DGs). • They capture shared conventional knowledge about communication and • the use of communication to achieve goals • A dialogue comprehension model is developed: • DG-identification, pursuit, termination captures functional aspects of • language: • Focus on regularities relating to the function of dialogues for the • participants • Example: • A is unhappy about some state of affairs, and interacts with B to convey • that unhappiness • (Griping)

  37. Dialogue Games Dialogue games – more formal Every DG consists of three parts:

  38. Dialogue Games Dialogue games – more formal • Every DG consists of three parts: • set of parameters

  39. Dialogue Games Dialogue games – more formal • Every DG consists of three parts: • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles)

  40. Dialogue Games Dialogue games – more formal • Every DG consists of three parts: • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic)

  41. Dialogue Games Dialogue games – more formal • Every DG consists of three parts: • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic) • collection of (parameter) specifications

  42. Dialogue Games Dialogue games – more formal • Every DG consists of three parts: • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic) • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals

  43. Dialogue Games Dialogue games – more formal • Every DG consists of three parts: • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic) • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals • partially ordered set of components

  44. Dialogue Games Dialogue games – more formal • Every DG consists of three parts: • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic) • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game

  45. Dialogue Games Dialogue games – more formal • Every DG consists of three parts: • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic) • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game • DGs capture a collection of information common across many dialogues

  46. Dialogue Games Dialogue games – more formal • Every DG consists of three parts: • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic) • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game • DGs capture a collection of information common across many dialogues: • Free variation of participants and of the subject of dialogue can be described by • same DG (e.g. Helping)

  47. Dialogue Games Dialogue games – more formal • Every DG consists of three parts: • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic) • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game • DGs capture a collection of information common across many dialogues: • Free variation of participants and of the subject of dialogue can be described by • same DG (e.g. Helping): • Individuals involved & subject vary across instances of a particular pattern

  48. Dialogue Games Dialogue games – more formal • Every DG consists of three parts: • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic) • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game • DGs capture a collection of information common across many dialogues: • Free variation of participants and of the subject of dialogue can be described by • same DG (e.g. Helping): • DGs‘ parameters (roles, topic) have specific values for each particular dialogue

  49. Dialogue Games Dialogue games – more formal • Every DG consists of three parts: • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic) • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game • Types of dialogues are distinguished by

  50. Dialogue Games Dialogue games – more formal • Every DG consists of three parts: • set of parameters: dialogue participants (roles), subject of the dialogue (topic) • collection of (parameter) specifications: the set of participants‘ goals • partially ordered set of components:dynamic aspects of the game • Types of dialogues are distinguished by • sets of participants‘ goals