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FROM RELIGIOUS DISPUTE TO RELIGIOUS WAR PowerPoint Presentation
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FROM RELIGIOUS DISPUTE TO RELIGIOUS WAR

FROM RELIGIOUS DISPUTE TO RELIGIOUS WAR

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FROM RELIGIOUS DISPUTE TO RELIGIOUS WAR

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  1. FROM RELIGIOUS DISPUTETO RELIGIOUS WAR Lutherans and Catholics made peace in Germany in 1555, but the following developments aggravated religious tensions: • The Catholic revival led by the Society of Jesus (Ignatius Loyola) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563). • The spread after 1550 of John Calvin’s “Reformed” strain of Protestantism from Geneva to southern France, Scotland, the Netherlands, and the Rhineland. • The French Wars of Religion, 1562-1593. • The Dutch War of Independence from Spain, 1572-1609.

  2. THE CONFESSIONAL PARTITION OF EUROPE BY 1560

  3. Militant Anabaptism was destroyed in 1535, when Jan of Leyden was executed in Münster, but pacifist sects endured: • Mennonites followed the teachings of Menno Simons, who renounced any use of violence (there are 1.5 million today worldwide; the Amish are an offshoot) • Hutterites followed the teachings of Jakob Hutter and formed communes where all goods were held in common (there are now 45,000 in North America) • Unitarians: Several radical writers challenged the Nicene Creed and taught that Jesus was simply human, an exemplary teacher and prophet (the UUA now has 160,000 members in the USA). Such radicals were often compelled to flee to Poland, Hungary, Transylvania, or the New World to avoid persecution….

  4. Ulrich Zwinglilaunched the Swiss Reformation in Zürich in 1521and agreed with Luther on 14 of 15 Points at the Marburg Colloquy of 1529(chaired by Landgrave Philip I of Hesse)

  5. Rubens, “The Miracles of St. Ignatius Loyola” • Lived 1491-1556: • Spanish soldier • Founded Society of Jesus in 1540 (Jesuits) • If the Church commands it, “I will believe that the white object I see is black.” • Peter Canisius founded new universities in Ingolstadt & Munich in 1550s.

  6. St. Teresa of Avila(1515-1582):Her portrait by Rubens and her “Ecstasy” as sculpted by Bernini Her theological writings earned her the title, “doctor of the Church,” and she founded a reformed branch of the Carmelite Order

  7. “The Council of Trent,”1545-1563 • The Vulgate is the authorized Bible • Good works are the prerequisite to salvation • Tradition remains as important as Scripture • Improve training & supervision of clergy!

  8. The Pope blesses pilgrims in St. Peter’s Square, ca. 1580

  9. The New St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome (completed 1626)

  10. Baroque altar of the Jesuit Church in Rome, built 1695-99

  11. King Francis I with Erasmus and Alberto Pio (1526): Francis ordered the execution of 20 Protestants in 1534

  12. The young John Calvin (1509-1564), who became chief pastor in Geneva in 1541

  13. CALVINISTS DIVERGED FROM LUTHERANS REGARDING SALVATION AND PROPER CHURCH GOVERNMENT • Calvin opposed Luther’s doctrine of “salvation by faith alone” with the doctrine of “predestination” –nobody could know why God decreed that some were elected for salvation and others damned. • Calvin rejected Luther’s model of church government based on cooperation between university faculties of theology and government officials who administered church property. • Calvin’s “Reformed” church was based on elected councils of elders (“presbyters”) in each congregation and regional synods.

  14. This Lutheran satirist has a Calvinist preacher say, “Take, eat, in memory only.” Below the Devil says “I, Satan, am also among the Calvinists.”

  15. Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) allowed the exiles to return “Bloody Mary” (r. 1553-58), who exiled John Knox to Geneva

  16. The International Calvinist Conspiracy of the 1560s

  17. A “Huguenot” (Reformed) service in Lyon, 1564

  18. Pieter Brueghel, The Sermon of Saint John the Baptist (1566):The Reformed movement spread to the Low Countries through open-air revival meetings

  19. The iconoclasm of Dutch Calvinists, ca. 1570

  20. An austere Calvinist church in the Palatinate, ca. 1600

  21. The Unitarian Michael Servetus (1511-1553) was executed in Calvin’s Geneva

  22. Dominant and minority confessions in Europe, ca. 1560:Huguenots converted only 1/6 of the French people but around 1/3 of French nobles and merchants