Experiential Learning With Human Patient Simulation Presented by: Joanne McDermott
Rationale • Nursing schools must balance theoretical knowledge acquisition and transferability with clinical experience opportunities to improve students' abilities to transition to safe beginning practitioners in the nursing profession.
Research Topic: • Effectiveness of human patient simulation experiences in increasing contextual knowledge and clinical reasoning skills in undergraduate nursing students.
Confucious Teach me and I will forget, Show me and I will remember, Engage me and I will understand.
Theoretical Frameworks: • John Dewey: Theory of Experience • Piaget:Cognitive Development
Piaget • Humans learn through the construction of progressively complex logical structures, from infancy through to adulthood. • Constructivist education is based on this premise of successive knowledge-building that increases in depth and complexity
Theory of Experience John Dewey • Called for education to be grounded in real experience. • "If you have doubts about how learning happens, engage in sustained inquiry: study, ponder, consider alternative possibilities and arrive at your belief grounded in evidence." • Inquiry is a key part of constructivist learning
And then there were more… • There are many other educators, philosophers, psychologists, and sociologists who have added new perspectives to constructivist learning theory. • Among them are: • Lev Vygotsky • Jerome Bruner
Vygotsky • introduced the social aspect of learning into constructivism. • defined the "zone of proximal learning” • students solve problems beyond their actual developmental level (but within their level of potential development) under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers.
Bruner • Initiated curriculum change based on the notion that learning is an active, social process in which students construct new ideas or concepts based on their current knowledge
Human Patient Simulations • problem-solving and inquiry-based learning activity • students formulate and test their ideas, draw conclusions and inferences • pool and convey their knowledge in a collaborative learning environment. • guided by the teacher, students construct their knowledge actively.
Human Patient Simulations • High fidelity mannequins can imitate a patients physiologic as well as human responses to disease METIiStan in Grey's Anatomy
Human Patient Simulations • encouraging students to use active techniques (experiments, real-world problem solving) to create more knowledge • teacher understands the students' preexisting conceptions, and guides the activity to address them and then build on them. • reflect on how their understanding is changing.
References • Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and Education. New York: Simon and Schuster. • Hetzel-Campbell, S. & Daley, K. ( 2009). Simulation scenarios for nurse educators: Making it real, New York: Springer Publishing Co. • Mufioz Rosario, R. A. & Widmeyer, G. (2009). An exploratory review of design principles in constructivist gaming learning environments. J InfSystEduc, 20 (3). • Piaget, J. (1958). The growth of logical thinking. U.S.A.: Basic Books, Inc. • Powell, K.C. & Kauna, C. J. (Wint 2009). Cognitive and social constructivism: developing tools for an effective classroom. Education,130 (2). • Schlairet,M.C. and Pollock, J.W. (2010). Equivalence testing of traditional and simulated clinical experiences: undergraduate nursing students’ knowledge acquisition. J NursEduc, 49 (1). • Splitter, Laurance J. (2009) Authenticity and Constructivism in Education. Stud PhilosEduc28:135–151 DOI 10.1007/s11217-008-9105-3 • Waxman, K.T. (2010) The development of evidence-based clinical simulation scenarios: guidelines for nurse educators. J NursEduc, 49 (1).