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December 12th

December 12th

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December 12th

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  1. December 12th • Quick Write: • Take the worksheet at the front of the desk. • Work on class work sheet • Homework: • complete the class work sheet on the Periodic Table • Read pages 150-159 • write Cornell Notes for pgs 135-149 if not complete • SWBAT: • Explain the difference between • a row and a group in the Periodic table. • define the word valence electrons. • Describe each group.

  2. Closure List the family names. Describe 5 characteristics you learned about the alkali elements. What do you find in the box of each element?

  3. December 13th • Quick Write: • Take out your Cornell Notes and the Chart from yesterday. • Define valence electron. • How is the periodic table organized? • Homework: • review your notes • Both Periodic Table Worksheets must be complete by tomorrow (front and back) • SWBAT: • Explain the difference between • a row and a group in the Periodic table. • define the word valence electrons. • Describe each group.

  4. Each electron in an atom has its own distinct amount of energy. When electrons are in their lowest energy state, it is called the ground state The ground state for Na is 2-8-1

  5. The Periodic Table

  6. elements: Periodic Table are arranged in increasing atomic number. Placement or location of elements on the Periodic Table indicates the physical and chemical properties of that element. Number of protons in an atom (atomic number) identifies the element Atomic mass: found on the Periodic Table of the Elements

  7. Classifying Elements • Metals • Nonmetals • Metalloids or semimetals (B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te), • Noble gases Nonmetals on the right Metals on the left Metalloids semimetals

  8. Group numbers and Family names • What are the groups? • The vertical columns • Each column is numbered a Group • Similar properties but not identical • Ex: Group 1: Alkali Metals: Li, Na, K • Soft, white shiny metals • All have same number of valence electrons • Valence electrons? • The last shell of the atom and the number of electrons

  9. Valence Electron

  10. Periods • Each row is a period • Elements are not alike in the properties • As you move from left to right the element goes from an extremely active solid to an inactive gas • Why? How can you remember this?

  11. December 14th Yourquizzes will be returned this week!! : ) • Quick Write: • Place your two Periodic Worksheets on your desk to be checked for completion. • Exchange your questions with your partner. Write down their questions. • Class Review • What is an ion? • Homework: • study your periodic Worksheets • quiz Friday, December 16th on • characteristics of Chemical Families • Test Wednesday, December 21st • SWBAT: • Identify unique characteristics of the • Chemical Families. • Differentiate between the traits of each • Chemical Family.

  12. December 15th Molecular Forces Lab is a week late. Late labs will lose points / week! Yourquizzes will be returned this Friday!! : ) • Quick Write: • Define ions and valence electrons. • Homework: • study your periodic Worksheets • quiz Monday, December 19th on • characteristics of Chemical Families • Test Thursday, December 22nd • SWBAT: • Identify unique characteristics of the • Chemical Families. • Differentiate between the traits of each • Chemical Family.

  13. Alkali Metals Description: • Most reactive metals • always found as compounds in nature • 1 valence electron, tend to lose 1 electron to form positive ions • Family 1 Usage: • Sodium: found in table salt • Rubidium: found in space vehicle engines

  14. Alkaline Earth Metals Description: • Reactive metals • always found as compounds in nature • 2 valence electrons, lose 2 electron to form positive ions • Family 2 Usage: • Strontium (Sr): found in fireworks • Radium (Ra): treatment of cancer • Barium (Ba): used in glass making

  15. Transition Elements Description: • hard solids with high melting point • Valence electrons of 1 or 2 and can lose electrons from the next energy level • Families 3-12 Usage: • Silver (Ag) , Gold (Au): Jewelry • Nickel (Ni): coins • Zinc (Zn); paint

  16. Boron Family Description: • have 3 valence electrons • Boron is a metalloid • Other elements below Boron are metals • Family 13 Usage: • Boron is used to make heat resistant glassware • Aluminum is most abundant metal.

  17. Carbon Family Description: 4 valence electrons Contains non-metal, metal and metalloids Family 14 Usage: Carbon is known as “the basis of life” Carbon is found in sugars, starches, fats and proteins

  18. Nitrogen Family Description: 5 valence electrons Atoms share electrons with other atoms Family 15 Usages: Nitrogen: 78% of the air around us Arsenic in insecticides

  19. Oxygen Description: • 6 valence electrons • Share electrons when bonding • Family 16 Usages: • Oxygen: most abundant element in the Earth’s Crust • Oxygen: makes up the ozone layer

  20. Halogens Description: 7 valence electrons Most reactive nonmetals React with Alkali metals easily Family 17 Usages: Chlorine makes table salt Fluoride is in toothpaste

  21. Noble Gases Description: Have 8 valence electrons Do not form bonds with other atoms Called inert gases Family 18 Usages: Radon: cancer treatments Neon: produces red light in neon signs Helium fills balloons to float in air, why do they float?

  22. December 15th Molecular Forces Lab is a week late. Late labs will lose points / week! Yourquizzes will be returned this Friday!! : ) • Quick Write: • Quiz your partner. Write down their questions and then answer them. • SWBAT: • Identify unique characteristics of the • Chemical Families. • Differentiate between the traits of each • Chemical Family. • Homework: • study your periodic Worksheets • quiz tomorrow on • characteristics of Chemical Families • Test Wednesday, December 21st

  23. Alkali Metals Description: • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • _______________________________________________ Usage: • ____________________________________ • ____________________________________

  24. Alkaline Earth Metals Description: • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • _______________________________________________ Usage: • ____________________________________ • ____________________________________

  25. Transition Elements Description: • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • _______________________________________________ Usage: • ____________________________________ • ____________________________________

  26. Boron Family Description: • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • _______________________________________________ Usage: • ____________________________________ • ____________________________________

  27. Carbon Family Description: • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • _______________________________________________ Usage: • ____________________________________ • ____________________________________

  28. Nitrogen Family Description: • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • _______________________________________________ Usage: • ____________________________________ • ____________________________________

  29. Oxygen Description: • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • _______________________________________________ Usage: • ____________________________________ • ____________________________________

  30. Halogens Description: • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • _______________________________________________ Usage: • ____________________________________ • ____________________________________

  31. Noble Gases Description: • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • _______________________________________________ Usage: • ____________________________________ • ____________________________________

  32. What is an ion?

  33. Description of the Periodic Table • Metalloids/Semimetals: • on the zigzag • separates metals from nonmetals • Examples: B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, At • Nonmetals: • gases, liquids or crystalline solids • Examples: C, N, O, F, P, Br, • gain electrons to become – ion • poor conductors of heat and electricity • Other metals: • metals good conductors of heat and electricity • luster and shine, malleable (can change shape) • Examples:Zn, Hg, Sn, Bi, Po

  34. Comparing the physical properties of metals and nonmetals Metals Nonmetals Silvery gray color except copper and gold Solid at room temperature except mercury Good conductors of heat and electricity Malleable – can be hammered into shapes (thin sheets) Ductile – can be pulled into wires • Many different colors • Sulfur – yellow • Chlorine – green • Bromine – orange • Iodine - purple • Many different states (phases) • H, N, O – gas • Br – liquid • S, C, I – solid • Poor conductors of heat and electricity (except carbon) • Brittle – breaks when hit

  35. Find the name of each symbol • Group 1 Alkali metals: • Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr • Group 2 Alkaline earth metals: • Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra • Other metals: Z • n, Hg, Sn, Bi, Po • Semimetals: • B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, At • Nonmetals: • C, N, O, F, P, Br • Group 18 Noble gases: • He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn

  36. Quick Write! Quiz! wednesday, November 16th • SWBAT: • describe the following and provide examples: • Chemical formula • Chemical equation • describe the parts of an atom and draw an image • label the subatomic particles • compare and contrast between compounds and elements • Homework: • read workbook pgs 15-23 • complete all pages due • Friday! • find 10 chemical elements • that can be found in your house • by Friday • Test Tuesday 11/22

  37. An atom • Basic unit of matter, “unable to be cut” An Element • Pure substance entirely of one atom

  38. What are the Subatomic Particles? • Proton • Neutron • Electron

  39. Cloud of negative charge (2 electrons) Electrons Nucleus (a) (b) The Atom

  40. Who is Neils Bohr? He proposed a theory: • an atom is composed of a dense nucleus with electrons in its surrounding orbit • electrons must have a certain amount of energy to orbit the nucleus. • Electrons have a more fixed manner around the nucleus.

  41. Modern Atom Model • Electron cloud model • Protons • Have a positive charge • have a mass of 1.67 x 10-24 g • Atomic number: • number of protons • Electrons: • Have a negative charge • If the atom has no charge there are the same number of electrons to protons • Mass number: • sum of the protons and neutrons together

  42. Quick Write! Take out your sheet from yesterday. THursday, November 17th • SWBAT: • describe the following and provide examples: • Chemical formula • Chemical equation • describe the parts of an atom and draw an image • label the subatomic particles • compare and contrast between compounds and elements • Calculate the number of neutrons, protons and electrons • Homework: • read textbook pgs. 99 -104 • see website for details • read workbook pgs 15-23 • complete all pages due • Friday! • find 10 chemical elements • that can be found in your house • by Friday • Test Tuesday 11/22

  43. Quick Write! Take out your sheet from yesterday. Answer the Quick Write Questions Friday, November 18th • SWBAT: • describe the following and provide examples: • Chemical formula • Chemical equation • describe the parts of an atom and draw an image • label the subatomic particles • compare and contrast between compounds and molecules • Calculate the number of atoms found in each chemical formula • Homework: • Test Tuesday 11/22 • Read pgs. 120- 126 practice note taking as you did last night

  44. 1. List the subatomic particles. Proton Neutron Electron 2. Where are each of the particles found and what is their charge? Proton : + charge , found in nucleus Neutron: no charge, found in nucleus Electron: - charge, found outside of the nucleus Quick Write

  45. 3. Identify one difference between a molecule and a compound. • Molecules are made of atoms, and compounds are made up of molecules, Label the molecule and the compound: ______________C2H4O2 ______________H2O

  46. 4. What does a chemical formula tell you? A chemical formula tells you the elements and number of atoms that are needed to make the molecule or compound. 5. What does a chemical equation tell you? A chemical equation tells you the types of molecules and or compounds that are needed to complete a chemical reaction to form products.