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Theories of development

CHAPTER 4. Theories of development. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT - THOUGHT. JEAN PIAGET – Swiss psychologist “ children are active thinkers ” C hild’s mind develops through stages B rain builds concepts through experiences – SCHEMAS. TYPES OF SCHEMAS.

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Theories of development

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  1. CHAPTER 4 Theories of development

  2. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT - THOUGHT • JEAN PIAGET– Swiss psychologist • “children are active thinkers” • Child’s mind develops through stages • Brain builds concepts through experiences – SCHEMAS

  3. TYPES OF SCHEMAS • ASSIMILATE– interpret new experiences & ideas in terms of current understanding or schema • Ex: infant has new toy so she sucks on it b/c rooting reflex is schema • ACCOMMODATE– adjust to make sense of new experience • Ex: infant learns toy will squeak when squeezed, so stops sucking it

  4. PIAGET’S DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES • #1: SENSORIMOTOR (0-2 yrs.) – experiences are dictated by senses & actions – object permanence is learned • #2: PREOPERATIONAL (2-6/7 yrs.) – too young to perform certain mental operations  lack concept of conservation • representational thought occurs

  5. PIAGET’S DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES • #3: CONCRETE OPERATIONAL (6/7-12 yrs.) – mastery of conservation, use & understand math, tangible objects & events can be explained & analyzed • #4: FORMAL OPERATIONAL (11/12-adult) – reasoning & able to handle abstract thinking, planning ahead, problem solving, hypothetical problems, considering outcomes, thinking things through, using logic

  6. MORAL DEVELOPMENT – LAWRENCE KOHLBERG • STAGE 1: egocentric – cannot consider others so simply avoid getting caught (Pleasure vs. Pain) • STAGE 2: know what’s right even if don’t choose to do it, but try to receive reward & recognition (“An Eye for an Eye”) • STAGE 3: sincere sensitivity of others – gain acceptance from others – avoid disapproval of others (Good Child)

  7. MORAL DEVELOPMENT – LAWRENCE KOHLBERG • STAGE 4: morality is truly important – what others think doesn’t matter – you know it’s right, so you do it (Law and Order) • STAGE 5: is the “right” decision fair & just – is law fair & just? – promote welfare (Social Contract) • STAGE 6: some ethics apply to everyone in every culture – i.e. “The Golden Rule” –can be ethnocentric to some degree (Ethical Principle)

  8. PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT – SOCIAL SITUATIONS • Erik Erikson– German immigrant, Harvard Med. School professor • development is characterized by sequence of challenges that emerge at various stages in life & choices one makes

  9. POSITIVE VS. NEGATIVE CHOICES • POSITIVE CHOICESbring people closer together, elevate self-esteem, & reinforce self-identity  healthy foundation • NEGATIVE CHOICESweaken social relationships, lower self-esteem  less happiness & more conflict • Criseschallenge us to develop, grow & form new ideas

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