USHC 4.1 Antebellum Pages 240-250, 254-258, 259-265, 276-279, 304-306
North VS. South VS. West • Social and Cultural Differences • Economic Differences • Geography • Regional Pride • Development of the West http://www.learner.org/biographyofamerica/prog10/feature/index.html
Puritans New England Education Church Quakers Pennsylvania Diversity NYC Immigrants Slaves Few No significant impact on culture Political Issues Promoted regional interests High tariffs National bank North-Culture
South-Culture • Colonial Beginnings • Plantations • Elite, few • Controlled government, society, and culture
South-Culture cont. • Fewer small towns • Rivers brought ships close to the fields • Education • Private-elite • Slaves • Large population • African-Americans (Slave and Free) contribute to culture • Political Issues • Regional Interests • Low tariffs • Spread of slavery to new territories.
West-Culture • Developed by Settlers • Northwest • Influenced by New England values • Kentucky, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas • Influenced by southern states • Manifest Destiny • Individualism • Political Issues • Cheap Land • Internal Improvements • Uncontrolled banking
African Americans • Northern States • Freed slaves soon after DOI. • Some still had slaves into the 1830’s • Slavery prohibited by Northwest Ordinance • Freed blacks did not have same rights as whites • “last hired, first fired”—least attractive jobs • De facto segregation
African Americans-cont. • South • Most were slaves • Conditions dependent upon locale and masters • Freedmen lived in cities to find work • Not granted civil or political rights
Reform Movements • Abolitionist Movement • Developed among Quakers • Abolitionists • Nat Turner • Frederick Douglass • Harriet Tubman • Williams Lloyd Garrison • Grimke sisters • Harriet Beecher Stowe • John Brown
Abolitionist Movement cont. • Newspapers • Anti-slavery conventions • Wrote books • Underground Railroad • Led rebellions
Anti-Abolitionist • Southerners argued that slavery was good • Better off than industrial workers
Women’s Rights Movement • Abolitionist movement split leads to questions of women’s rights • Women speaking on the issue of slavery? • Limited access to education, rights to own property, divorce • Elizabeth Cady Stanton • Lucretia Mott • Senceca Falls (NY) Convention 1848
USHC 4.2 Causes of Civil War pp. 222-223, 230-232, 304-331
A Nation Divided p. 306 • The Wilmot Proviso • Wilmot Proviso—no slavery in territory acquired from Mexico • North: slave territory adds slave states; no jobs for free workers • South: slaves are property under Constitution; fear more free states
Mexican War 1846- As a result of the Mexican War, the U.S. gains more land in the West known as the Mexican Cession. Congress now has to decide whether to allow slavery in these territories.
Compromise of 1850 • Clay’s Compromise • Some Southerners threaten secession, withdrawal of state from Union • Henry Clay offers Compromise of 1850 to settle disputes over slavery
Compromise of 1850 cont. • Terms of the Compromise • Compromise has provisions to appease North and South: - California to be a free state - more effective fugitive slave law - popular sovereignty—residents of territory vote to decide slavery - government to pay Texas $10 million for its claim to eastern NM - slave trade banned in D.C. but slavery permitted • Clay gives speech begging North and South to compromise, save Union
Compromise cont. • The Fugitive Slave Act •Fugitive Slave Act—part of Compromise of 1850, has very harsh terms •Alleged fugitives denied jury trial, right to testify on own behalf •Federal commissioners paid more for returning than freeing accused •People convicted of helping a fugitive fined, imprisoned, or both • North responded with the personal liberty laws.
Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad •UndergroundRailroad—secret network of people who help slaves escape •Harriet Tubman (Moses) escapes from slavery, becomes conductor on 19 trips •Fugitives go on foot at night, often no food, avoiding armed patrols •Some fugitives stayed in North; others go on to Canada Watch Video (Tubman and FSA.)
Uncle Tom’s Cabin •Abolitionist Harriet Beecher Stowe’sUncle Tom’s Cabin stirs protest •Uncle Tom’s Cabin shows slavery as moral problem, not just political
The Kansas-Nebraska Act • Douglas’s bill repeals Missouri Compromise; bitter debate ensues • 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act allows popular sovereignty on slavery
The Race for Kansas • Northern, Southern settlers pour into Kansas Territory • Most settlers sent by antislavery emigrant aid societies • In 1855, Kansas holds election for territorial legislature • Proslavery “border ruffians” vote illegally, win fraudulent majority • Proslavery government in Lecompton; antislavery rival in Topeka
“Bleeding Kansas” • “The Pottawatomie Massacre” • Abolitionist John Brown believes God wants him to fight slavery • Brown, followers violently kill 5 men in “Pottawatomie Massacre” • Territory called Bleeding Kansas for incidents that kill some 200
In reaction to the Fugitive Slave Act, Northern States pass personal liberty laws. Harriet Tubman conducts more than 300 slaves to freedom on the Underground Railroad. Harriett Beecher Stowe Describes slavery’s evils In her novel, Uncle Tome’s Cabin. The NORTH-SOUTH split grows deeper. Stephen Douglas proposes replacing the Missouri Compromise with the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Slavery Divides Whigs • Northern, Southern Whigs split over slavery in 1852 elections • Democrat Franklin Pierce elected president in 1852 • Whig Party splinters after Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
The Free-Soilers •Free-Soil Party opposes extension of slavery into territories •Many Free-Soilers not abolitionists; support restrictions on blacks •Object to slavery’s impact on white wage-based labor force •Convinced of conspiracy to spread slavery throughout U.S.
Republican Party •1854, unhappy Whigs, Democrats, Free-Soilers form Republican Party •Horace Greeley, abolitionist, helps found Republican party •Republicans oppose slavery in territories; other opinions varied •Main competition for voters is Know-Nothing Party
Remember the…Missouri Compromise-1820 Why would a Balance between free and slave states be so important? A. Missouri enters union as a slave state B. Maine enters union as a free state C. Slavery is banned over the 36’30’ line D. Slavery is allowed under the 36’30’ line
Dred Scott Decision •Dred Scott, slave who had lived in free areas sues for freedom •1857, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney hands down decision - slaves do not have rights of citizens - no claim to freedom, suit begun in slave state - Congress cannot forbid slavery in territories • Missouri Compromise Unconstitutional Watch Dred Scott Video
Harpers Ferry • John Brown plans to start a slave uprising, needs weapons • 1859, leads band to federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry to get arms • U.S. Marines put down rebellion, capture Brown Watch John Brown Video
John Brown’s Body John Brown’s body lies a-mouldering in the grave John Brown’s body lies a-mouldering in the grave John Brown’s body lies a-mouldering in the grave But his soul goes marching on. Glory, glory, hallelujah (3x)His soul goes marching on. He captured Harper’s Ferry with his nineteen men so few,And he frightened "Old Virginny" till she trembled through and through,They hung him for a traitor, themselves a traitor crew, But his soul is marching on. Glory, glory, hallelujah (3x)His soul goes marching on. John Brown died so the slaves might be free John brown died so the slaves might be free john brown died so the slaves might be free but his soul goes marching on Glory, glory, hallelujah (3x)His soul goes marching on.
Lincoln is Elected President • Election of 1860 • President Lincoln • Southerners believe their voice has been lost • Fearful of Northern Republicans • South Carolina Leads the Way…
Southern Secession • The Shaping of the Confederacy • South Carolina and 6 other states secede: - want complete independence from federal control - fear end to their way of life - want to preserve slave labor system • Feb. 1861 Confederacy or Confederate States of America forms • Confederacy permits slavery, recognizes each state’s sovereignty • Former senator Jefferson Davis unanimously elected president
Activity • Create a Paper Plate Timeline of the major events and compromises leading up to the Civil War. Working in pairs/groups, students will prepare a representation on a paper plate of the event as if it were being made into a commemorative medal (coin). Each medal (coin) must include the name of the event, a symbol that represents the event, and a motto or slogan representing the event. When the medals are complete, hang them on the wall in any order. The class must come to consensus as to the true order or sequence.
Tangmania VS Gagoola • Are you going to fight an offensive or defensive war? • How will you use your ground forces? • How will you use your naval forces? • How will your resources, or lack of them, affect your strategy? • Do you want to work out any treaties or agreements with other countries? What might these agreements be?
USHC 4.3 Civil War pp. 340-341, 347-348, 351-352, 357-361, 364-365
Southern Economics (Confederacy) • Cotton • Trade with Britain • Defensive War
Anaconda Plan • Union and Confederate Strategies •Union advantages: soldiers, factories, food, railroads •Confederate advantages: cotton profits, generals, motivation •Anaconda plan:Union strategy to conquer South - blockade Southern ports - divide Confederacy in two in west - capture Richmond, Confederate capital •Confederate strategy: defense, invade North if opportunity arises
Anaconda Plan cont. • Named by northern papers—like when a snake suffocates its victims in its coils