Stretch IT The Role of Text-Dependent Questions in Teaching, Thinking and Learning Across the Curriculum
Understand how asking probing questions or “stretching it” and text-dependent questions lead to greater opportunities for scholars to develop thought-stimulating answers • Engage scholars in increased cognitive rigor regardless of the content • Develop specific strategies for cultivating critical reading, writing, speaking and listening ObjectivesTWBAT:
The sequence of learning does not end with a right answer; reward right answers with follow up questions that extend knowledge and test for reliability (Teach Like a Champion 41) Teacher: What do we celebrate on the third Monday in January? Scholar: Martin Luther King Jr.’s birthday. STRETCH IT Teacher: Why did lawmakers decide to honor Martin Luther King Jr. with a national holiday? Teacher: What inference can you make about Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s impact on the nation? Teacher: Who can share specific examples from the text that illustrate/reinforce/support /substantiate your answer? What is Stretch It?
With a partner, explain the difference between the first question and the STRETCH-IT questions.
Teacher: About how far is it from Philadelphia to Washington, D.C.? • Student: About 60 miles. • Teacher: Good Answer! How did you get it? • Student: I measured. An inch on the legend is 12 miles, and it is 5 inches from Philadelphia to Washington, D.C. I added 12 plus 12, plus 12, plus 12, plus 12 and got 60. • Teacher:Would there have been a quicker way to find out it was 60? • Student: I could multiply 12 by 5. • Teacher: Excellent! That would have been a much more efficient, and quicker way to get the same answer. Stretch-It Example # 2
Ask how or why - The best test of whether students can get answers right consistently is whether they can explain how they got the answer. • Ask for another way to answer - There are often multiple ways to answer a question. When a student answer a question one way, it's a great opportunity for us to ensure they can use all available methods. • Ask for a better word - Students often begin framing concepts in the simplest possible language. This allows them to use new, more specific words and develop their vocabulary. • Ask for evidence - Stresses the importance of building and defending sound arguments. • Ask students to integrate a related skill - In the real world, questions rarely isolate a skill precisely. Try asking students to integrate that skill with other skills they recently mastered. • Ask students to apply the same skill in a new setting - Once students have mastered a skill, ask them to apply it in a new or more challenging setting. Stretch It Techniques
Build knowledge through content • Ground reading, writing and speaking in evidence from both informational and literary texts • Lead to regular practice with complex texts and academic language • Allow a teacher to spend more time “inside the text” • Involve analysis, synthesis and evaluation Adopted from: www.achievethecore.com Text-Dependent Questions
Not Text-Dependent Text-Dependent What makes Casey’s experiences at bat humorous. Use the text to substantiate your answers. What can you infer from King’s letter about the letter he received? “The Gettysburg Address” mentions the year 1776. According to Lincoln’s speech, why is this year significant to the events described in the speech? • In “Casey at the Bat,” Casey strikes out. Describe a time when you failed at something • In “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” Dr. King discusses nonviolent protest. Discuss, in writing, a time when you wanted to fight against something that you felt was unfair. • In “the Gettysburg Address,” Lincoln says the nation is dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Why is equality an important value to promote Adopted from: www.achievethecore.com
Thinking is not driven by answers, but by questions. To think through or rethink anything, one must ask questions that stimulate our thought. Questions define tasks, express problems and delineate issues. http:www.criticalthinking.org What is the connection between asking questions and academic rigor?
Using the techniques on the previous slide, add three “stretch it” and/or text dependent questions for one of the following: • What is the slope of the graphed line? • What personality trait best describes the main character? • How would you say, “We had a great weekend,” in Spanish? • Why did Japan invade India during World War II? • What elements make up a molecule of water? • What is one element of a healthy lifestyle? • What techniques are used by impressionist painters? • The chord below is an example of what? Partner Practice
Questions of Purpose—ask scholars to define the task • Questions of Interpretation—require scholars to examine how we are giving meaning to information • Questions of Implication—challenge scholars to flesh out where their thinking is going • Questions of Precision—force scholars to give details and to be specific • Questions of Accuracy—require scholars to evaluate and test for truth and correctness • Questions of Consistency—force scholars to examine their thinking for contradictions Avoid Dead Questions, Instead Focus on Thought-Stimulating Questions
Take out the learning ladder/lesson plan that you brought with you • With a partner from your same content area, come up with a series of stretch it questions and text-dependent questions that you can use for this ladder/plan • Mark up the ladder/plan to reflect when and where you would insert these questions • Be prepared to practice asking your questions to the rest of the group • Each person should also be prepared to give feedback Now, it is your turn