CCSS and Science Literacy Performance Expectations; Student Metacognition Strategies; and Strategies for Explicit Teaching
Today’s Objectives: To look at how Science skills and Reading skills are so similar. To look at how Science skills and Writing skills are so similar. To discuss the importance of Performance Expectations and how Students and Teachers both benefit To discuss the importance of Student Metacognition and strategies that will help students understand how they can improve in this area. To discuss and do strategies that will reinforce the Common Core Reading, Writing, Listening, and Communicating standards. Look at lessons or units and allow for grade level discussions and development of some take home strategies you can use in the classroom.
80% of their time is devoted to reading and writing! (Palincsar & Magnusson, 2000) What Do Scientists Do?
Teachers and students cannot achieve goals set by the standards without acknowledging and using the intimate connection between science content and the skilled used of science content language. Performance Expectations
•If teachers use literacy in the content area strategies 15-20 minutes (a couple of times each week), students increase reading levels and significantly improve performance on content area standardized testing. Research shows:
Science • Observing • Predicting • Inferring • Comparing & Contrasting • Communicating • Classifying • Collecting & Organizing Data • Interpreting Data • Linking Cause & Effect • Formulating Conclusions Reading Note Details Predicting Inferring Comparing & Contrasting Communicating Sequencing Summarizing Recognizing Main Ideas Recognizing Cause & Effect Drawing Conclusions Comparison of Skills: Science and Reading
Science •Interpreting data and graphs •Annotated diagrams and drawings •Procedures/processes •Inferences •Hypotheses •Explanations/justifications •Conclusions •Focused free writing Writing •Compare and contrast •Analysis •Persuade and convince •Cause and effect •Problems and solutions •Descriptions and observations •Summaries Science and Writing Skills
Anytime that a student uses language, the student should be expected to demonstrate proper command of the language appropriate to the student’s developmental level.
Student Metacognition Strategies
Strategies for Explicit Teaching
Interpreting Visual Text Roles of Visual Representations Exemplify: Gives an example of something from the text Contextualize: Helps you understand how something happens Clarify: Shows something that is hard to explain with words Extend: Adds new information (Do fold-ables activity)
Using Text Features Text Features can help readers: Identify the most important ideas in a text. Anticipate what’s to come. Understand challenging ideas. Find information they are looking for. (Read Mining in Peru story)
Summary Writing (Do Mining Activity)
Teaching About the Nature of Science Practices of Science Ask questions Design new things Make predictions or hypotheses Read about the work of other scientists Work with other scientists Make observations Use tools, models, and computers Record and organize data Make explanations from evidence Create solutions to solve problems Talk and write about investigations (Do mining activity)
About Procedures Characteristics of a Procedure A procedure: Tells how to do something. Has a title. Lists materials at the beginning. Has numbered steps. Includes specific measurements. Includes details that help the reader know exactly what to do. Uses command verbs. (Do PBJ activity)
Promoting Word Consciousness Ways to Promote Word Consciousness Create a classroom environment that encourages curiosity about words and their meanings. Provide repeated opportunities to identify, explore, and use new words found in text. Encourage precision with language in discussions and writing. Foster an awareness about words through the study of prefixes , suffixes, and roots. Help students see relationships between words. Involve students in conducting investigations as a context for learning and using new words.
Teaching Vocabulary with Science Texts Guidelines for selecting vocabulary to teach with Science Texts. 1. Select words that convey the most important ideas from a text. 2. Choose words that can generate many examples (e.g., planet, invertebrate) rather than specific examples (e.g., Jupiter, centipede). 3. Choose words that relate to other words you are teaching (e.g., erosion, rock). 4. Focus on two to three words from each text. It is better to help students gain a deep understanding of a few words than to try to teach long lists of words.
Roundtable Discussions Roundtable Discussion Directions: The person who is the leader for question #1 reads the question aloud. The leader asks the group for ideas. Everyone else in the group shares ideas, and the leader takes note as needed. The leader makes sure that everyone contributes. When everyone has shared ideas, rotate to the next leader and the next question.
Roundtable Discussion Questions: What is Science Literacy? What is being Scientifically Literate? How important is knowing Science vocabulary words? Why are writing and Science Notebooks synonymous? Communicating what one learns to others is important. Why? Is it important to teach good listening skills? Why?
Taking Notes Based on Observations Taking notes based on observations: Focus your attention on what you are observing. Use as many of the senses as possible to observe (sight, hearing, touch, smell). Write down only what you observe, not what you imagine. Use scientific language (e.g., thorax instead of body). Be specific and detailed in order to create a picture with words. Include the date and time of your observations and ant measurements you took. If possible, draw a detailed picture of what you observe and include labels.