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Chapter 1 Accounting and The Business Environment PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 1 Accounting and The Business Environment

Chapter 1 Accounting and The Business Environment

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Chapter 1 Accounting and The Business Environment

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  1. Chapter 1 Accounting and The Business Environment

  2. Decision Makers

  3. Two Fields of Accounting Financial Accounting Managerial Accounting Focuses on information for internal decision makers Managers Business Owners Employees Provides information for external decision makers • Investors • Creditors • Taxing Authorities

  4. S1-2: USERS OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION Suppose you are the manager of Greg’s Tunes, Inc. The company needs a bank loan in order to purchase music equipment. In evaluating the loan request, the banker asks about the assets and liabilities of the business. In particular, the banker wants to know the amount of the business’s stockholders’ equity. Requirements: • Is the banker considered an internal or external user of financial information? • Which financial statement would provide the best information to answer the banker’s questions?

  5. The Accounting Profession • Lucrative career with many opportunities • Certified Public Accountants (CPAs)

  6. Governing Organizations

  7. Ethics in Accounting and Business Conflict of Interest

  8. Audit • SEC requires companies to have financial statements examined by independent accountants • Auditors will provide an opinion on financial statements, if possible • Recent accounting scandals hurt investor confidence • SOX • PCAOB

  9. Standards of Professional Conduct

  10. Types of Business Organizations

  11. Comparison of Business Forms

  12. Corporate Characteristics

  13. Corporate Characteristics(continued)

  14. Corporate Characteristics(continued)

  15. Organization of a Corporation • Incorporators obtain charter from the state • Charter authorizes corporation to: • Issue stock • Conduct business in accordance with state law • Incorporators agreed to a set of bylaws • Corporations begins to exist when stock is issued

  16. Structure of a Corporation

  17. S1-4: TYPES OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION Chloe Michaels plans on opening Chloe Michaels’ Floral Designs. She is considering the various types of business organizations and wishes to organize her business with unlimited life and limited liability features. Additionally, Chloe wants the option to raise additional equity easily in the future. Which type of business organization will meet Chloe’s needs best?

  18. GAAP • Generally Accepted Accounting Principles • Guidelines that govern accounting • Based on a conceptual framework

  19. Accounting Principles

  20. Accounting Principles

  21. Accounting Principles(continued)

  22. The Accounting Equation ASSETS LIABILITIES EQUITY Economic Resources Claims to Economic Resources

  23. Assets • Economic resources • Benefit the business in the future

  24. Claims to Assets Liabilities Equity Owners’ claims to the assets of the business • Debts payable to outsiders

  25. The Accounting Equation Assets Liabilities Equity Assets Liabilities Equity

  26. Equity of a Corporation Liabilities Assets Stockholders’equity Paid-in capital Retained earnings

  27. Equity of a Corporation

  28. Net Income + Net income(loss) + Revenues - Expenses Retained earnings - Dividends

  29. Revenues • Amounts earned by delivering goods or services to customers • Sales revenue • Service revenue • Interest revenue • Dividend revenue

  30. Expenses • Outflows of assets or increasing liabilities in the course of delivering goods or services to customers • Store or rent expense • Salary expense • Advertising expense • Utilities expense • Interest expense • Property tax expense

  31. E1-16: CHARACTERISTICS OF A CORPORATION, ACCOUNTING CONCEPTS, AND USING THE ACCOUNTING EQUATION Select financial information for three corporations follows: Requirements: 1. Compute the missing amount in the accounting equation for each entity. $74,000 $ ? $43,000 $ ? $47,000 $ ?

  32. E1-16: CONTINUED 2. List the seven main characteristics of a corporation. 3. Which accounting concept tells us that the previous three corporations will continue to exist in the future? Continuous Life and transferability Corporate taxation Government regulation Limited Liability of Stockholders No Mutual Agency Separate Legal Entity Separation of ownership and managers Going Concern Concept

  33. Transaction • An event that affects the financial position of the business • Can be measured reliably • Every transaction impacts at least two items • The accounting equation balances before and after each transaction

  34. Caren Smith opened a medical practice. During July, the first month of operation, the business, titled Caren Smith, M.D., P.C. (Professional Corporation), experienced the following events: • Analyze the effects of these events on the accounting equation of the medical practice of Caren Smith, M.D., P.C. E1-21: USING THE ACCOUNTING EQUATION TO ANALYZE TRANSACTIONS

  35. E1-21: CONTINUED

  36. E1-21: CONTINUED

  37. Balance Sheet Statement of Retained Earnings Income Statement Preparing the Financial Statements Statement of Cash Flows

  38. Income Statement

  39. Statement of Retained Earnings

  40. Balance Sheet

  41. Statement of Cash Flows

  42. P1-36A: PREPARING FINANCIAL STATEMENTS Studio Photography, Inc., works weddings and prom-type parties. The balance of retained earnings was $16,000 at December 31, 2011. At December 31, 2012, the business’s accounting records show these balances: Prepare the following financial statements for Studio Photography, Inc. for the year ended December 31, 2012: a. Income statement b. Statement of retained earnings c. Balance sheet

  43. P1-36A: CONTINUED

  44. P1-36A: CONTINUED

  45. P1-36A: CONTINUED 47,000 76,000

  46. Decision Guidelines