01 IAT 102 Graphic Design
01 General Info Break Brief intro to Graphic Design Prehistory of Visual Communication Intro: Lab Activity and Project #1
What is Graphic Design? As a practice, it has been around for thousands of years…
Dictionary Definition graph·ic |ˈgra-fik| adjective 1: of or relating to the pictorial esp. involving drawing, engraving, or lettering2: of or relating to the art of printing 3: formed by writing, drawing, or engraving de·sign |di-ˈzīn| verb 1: to conceive or execute a plan2: to draw, lay out, or prepare a design
Logotype “Los Logos”, Gestalten, 2002
Information Design Harry Beck, London Tube Map, 1931
... and many more: - Webdesign - Package Design - Magazine Design - Game Design
Why is Graphic Design important? Graphic designers use visual means to lead users through information.
Why is Graphic Design important? Graphic designers help humans better understand information in the world.
Old thinking “Typically, graphic designers provide the spit and polish but not the shoe.” (Form)
Old thinking Graphic designer often served as the ‘lubricant’ for other disciplines: • product design • architecture • fashion and as the ‘gloss and glitter’ of the media industries: • publishing • film • television • internet
New thinking Graphic designers today have become producers, creating products, furniture, garments, textiles, typefaces, databases, magazines, novels, music, critical essays, films and videos. (Form and Function)
How Graphic Designers Think Design Principles Graphic Design is grounded in fundamental principles that underpin good and efficient design. Design Process Involves thinking and creative process related to idea generation and informed design decision-making. Understanding basic principles of cognitive psychology Human perception: most humans - those with normally functioning eyes and brains - perceive and comprehend information similarly.
“Building Blocks” essential to good graphic design: • Shape and Form • Spatial Awareness (layout and grid systems) • Typography: understanding what type is and how to work with it • Dynamics, Emphasis and Contrast • Using Colour for emphasis, orientation or decoration
Graphic design’s relation to technological change • As technology changes, the way design is produced, reproduced, distributed and understood also changes. • Historically, designers are employed to represent technological change & to make it understandable to non-specialists. • Design (style) reflects changing cultural values in relation to technological change. • The formal aspects such as character, idea & quality of design changes as technology changes.
Prehistory Images taken from: Megg’s History of Graphic Design and Jubert’s Typography and Graphic Design
Early Calendar (30,000 - 20,000 B.C.) found in Dordogne, France A sequence of incisions on animal bone. The incisions are believed to have been used to record phases of the moon (interpretation is open to debate).
1st Writing Tools? - over 200,000 years ago Above: Paleolithic bones incised with a series of lines.Below: Pieces (churinga) of carved stone and wood with abstract patterns, Australia.
1st Animation - Grotte de Lascaux (means “Cave of Lascaux” in French)
Cave painting from Lascaux (c. 15,000 - 10,000 B.C.) Random placement and shifting scale signify prehistoric people’s lack of structure and sequence in recording experience.
1st Writing (c. 3100 B.C.)- pictographic pre-cuneiform tablet (clay) Early accountants: shows number of cows (“V” with curve on top) and sheep (cross within a circle)
Early Grids (c. 3100 B.C.) - early Sumerian pictographic tablets The archaic pictographic script contained the seeds for thedevelopment of writing. Information is structured into grid zonesby horizontal and vertical division.
Better Writing, Better Grids (c. 2360 B.C.) - cuneiforms Cuneiform writing contains phonetic + syllabic elements which provided a flexible way of communication. This led to marked improvements in agricultural production + science advancement.
Egyptian stone relief hieroglyphs (c. 1450 B.C.) - detail Written hieroglyphics were simplified, but they maintained their pictographic origin.