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六级基础词汇

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  1. 六级基础词汇 赵剑峰 2012.7

  2. Grey whales have long been _____ in the north Atlantic and hunting was an important cause for that. • A) extinct B) extinguished • C) detained D) deprived

  3. extinct • extinct灭绝的 • If nothing is done to protect the environment, millions of spiders that are alive today will have become extinct.(2001) • instinct本能 • Aggression is a kind of innate (天生的) survival mechanism, an instinct for self-preservation that allows animals to defend themselves from threats to their existences of human violence.(2002.6) • by instinct出于本能 • on instinct凭直觉

  4. distinct; distinctive • Anything clearly noticed is distinct. A thing or quality that is clearly different from others of its kind is distinctive, or distinctfrom. • There’s a distinct smell of beer in this room • Beer has a very distinctive smell; it’s quite distinct from the smell of wine.

  5. extinguish扑灭;熄灭 • They tired to extinguish the fames. • Firemen soon put the fire out. • The fire has goneout. • Absence to love is what wind is to fire. It extinguishes the small; it inflames the great. • 离别至于爱情好比风之于火,它能将小火熄灭,却使大伙熊熊燃烧。

  6. detain扣留;拘留 • -tain=keep • The police have detained the suspect. • We may also be quite confident that the present trend toward a shorter day and a shorter week will be maintained.(2003.6) • He abstained from smoking.(戒除) • renders foods calorie-free while retaining their vitamins(2000.1) • The last of these—in particular the introduction of vehicles powered by electricity—is ultimately the only sustainable option. (2000.6) • obtain获得

  7. deprive • No one can function properly if they are deprived of adequate sleep.(2000.6) • pri= • private/public school • Saving Private Ryan • Live in privacy • privilege of birth与生俱来的优越 • give priority to…

  8. He was given major responsibility for operating the remote manipulator to ________ the newly launched satellite. • A) retreat B) retrieve • C) embody D) embrace

  9. manipulate操纵 • Too many vulnerable child-free adults are being ruthlessly (无情的) manipulated into parent-hood by their parents, who think that happiness among older people depends on having a grand-child to spoil. (2005.12) • mani- • manner/manage/manual • manuscript手稿 • manacle手铐 (acle东西) handcuff(cuff袖口) • manufacture • maintain维护保养(用手) • mandate命令;委托书

  10. retreat • Will space be an exotic(外来的) retreat reserved for only the wealthy? Or will middle-class folks have a chance to take their families to space? (2006.12) • maltreat虐待/malnutrition/malfunction • abuse/abnormal/abduct(诱拐) • treaty条约 • NATO=North Atlantic Treaty Organization

  11. retrieve收回;检索 • Consumers are not supposed to throw used computers in the trash because unscrupulous dealers will retrieve them for profit.(2005.1) • To retrieve some data, one has to consult a computer.

  12. embody使具体化;embrace拥抱;包括 • The author assert that all things American are fascinating to foreigners because they embody the most sophisticated technology.

  13. em- en前缀 • ① 表示"进入…之中,包围” • embrace拥抱 • embed安置;嵌于 • empathy感情相融的 • embarrass使难堪(em+barrass套子→进入套子→难堪) • enroll注册,记入名册(en+roll名单) • encage关入笼中(en+cage笼子) • enchain束缚(en+chain锁链) • enlist入伍 • ② 表示"使…进入状态” • empower授权 • embitter使痛苦( • emboss使凸出(em+boss凸出→使凸出) • enact制定;颁布(en+act行动→进入行动→颁布〔法令〕) • enchant使迷醉(en+chant咒语→被咒语所迷醉) • encompass包围,围绕(en+compass包围) • encourage鼓励( • enlighten启发,开导

  14. Foreign students are facing unprecedented delays, as visa applications receive closer ________ than ever. • A) appraisal B) scanning • C) retention D) scrutiny

  15. unprecedented空前的 • proceed行进(go forward);进行(go on) • the process of history历史的进程 • legal procedure诉讼程序 • lantern procession提灯游行(行列) • precede领先;在…之前 • ced,cede,ceed=go

  16. ced,cede,ceed=go • precede领先 • precedent先例 • preceding在前的 • exceed超过 • concede让步;迁就 (con加强语气) • accede同意;答应 (ac-=to) • recede后退,变少(re=back)

  17. application • apply…to… • apply to • apply to…for… • appliance/instrument/equipment/device • applicant • applied/pure science

  18. appraisal • praise赞扬 • appraise(给…赞扬)评价;估价 • -al后缀

  19. al后缀的四种含义 • 形容词后缀 • national → 国家的/民族的 • basal → 基础的 • equal → 相等的 • loyal → 忠心的 • formal → 正式的/形式上的 • oral → 口头的/口述的 • mental → 心理的/精神的 • 名词后缀构成抽象名词 • trial → 尝试/试验 • arrival → 到达 • removal → 移动/迁移 • refusal → 拒绝 • 表示“人” • arrival → 到达者 • rival → 竞争者 • rascal → 恶棍/歹徒 • criminal → 犯罪分子/罪犯 • 表示“物” • dial → 标度盘 • animal → 动物 • hospital → 医院 • signal → 信号

  20. scan • scan: look at every part of sth carefully, especially because you are looking for a particular thing or person • skim:read sth quickly in order to find a particular point or the main point • scandal丑闻

  21. • spot • watch • observe • witness • scrutiny仔细查看(scrunit拾荒者捡破烂) • glance瞥视 • glimpse瞥见 • sightsee观光 • peer凝视 • stare瞪 • gaze远眺;注视 • gape张着嘴看

  22. tent,tain • abstention戒 • detention扣留 • retention保持 • sustenance营养;饮食 • content

  23. If you are late for the appointment, you might ________ the interviewer and lose your chance of being accepted. • A) irrigate B) intrigue • C) irritate D) intimidate

  24. irrigate灌溉(ir=in; rig=water) • The lady seemed annoyed because I had dialed the wrong number. The second time, she seemed irritated. • irritate犹指不断重复而使人生气 • Don’t be angry, Don’t be irritated. anger and irritation bring about early aging. • 不要气不要恼,气气恼恼人快老。

  25. 生气 • anger • lose one’s temper • annoyance • provocation挑衅 • displeasure不满 • vexation烦恼;伤脑筋 • fury狂怒 • rage大怒

  26. intrigue阴谋v. n. • schemes and intrigues阴谋诡计 • trig=trick • trick sb into doing骗人做…… • trick sb out of从…中骗取 • tricky狡猾的 (-y形容词后缀) • intricate(内含很多tricks)错综复杂的 • A detective story usually has an intricate plot. • complex许多部分合成的复杂; complicated相互纠缠以至于难懂,难以理解

  27. intimidate • timid羞怯的 • intimidate=put sb into timidity=恐吓 • shy • frightened • fearful • coward懦弱的 • chicken胆小鬼 懦夫

  28. Children’s idea of a magic kingdom is often dancers in animal ________ as they have often seen in Disneyland. • A) cushions B) costumes • C) skeletons D) ornaments

  29. costume • uniform • outfit特定场合用的,工作服 • strip彩条服装 • costume服装,特定装束 • ornament装饰 • furnish家具 装备 • decoration装修

  30. skeleton骨架 • a skeleton in the cupboard:secret which would embarrass sb if it became known (若揭露出来可能使某人难堪的)秘密 • a skeleton crew [staff]骨干人员 • walking skeleton 骨瘦如柴的人

  31. Ever since the first nuclear power stations were built, doubts have ________ about their safety. • A) preserved B) survived • C) suspended D) lingered

  32. preserve • serv= keep • conserve: use carefully without waste • conservethe forest; conserve one’s energy • conservative保守的 • reserve: keep for special use • reserve a table • preserve: prevent sb/sth from being harmed or destroyed • preserve dead bodies from decay

  33. viv-,vit-vig生命 活力 • vivid a 活泼的;生动的(viv+id) • revive v 复活 revival n 复活 • survive v 存活,幸存 survival n 存活下来 • vital a 至关重要的(vit+al) • vitality n 活力(vital+izy) • vitamin n 维生素(vit+a+min素→生命要素→维生素) • vigor n 精力vigorous a 精力旺盛的  

  34. pend; pens=to weigh, hang, pay • suspend悬挂 暂停 • appendix附录 • pension年金;养老金 • compensate赔偿 • indispensable

  35. This clearly shows that crops and weeds have quite a number of ________ in common. • A) traits B) traces • C) tracks D) trails

  36. trait • trait • characteristic • character • feature • portrait肖像 • profile侧面像 • traitor叛徒,卖国贼

  37. trace • trace痕迹,极少量 • a trace of 一丝,少许 • trace back追溯 • track轨道 跟踪 • field田赛 track径赛 • keep track保持联系 lose track失去联系 • trail痕迹,小道 • trialand error反复试验 从失败中找到方法

  38. From science to Shakespeare, excellent television and video programs are available ______ to teacher. • A) in stock B) in store • C) in operation D) in abundance • in stock/out of stock • take stock of 对…进行评估 • stock broker证券经纪人

  39. abundance • be abundant/rich in富于… • Globalization has started a variety of trends with profound consequences: the opening of markets, true global competition, widespread deregulation (解除政府对…的控制) of industry, and an abundance of accessible capital. (2005.12)

  40. When the Italian poet Dante was ________ from his home in Florence, he decided to walk from Italy to Paris to search for the real meaning of life. • A) exerted B) expired • C) exiled D) exempted

  41. exert • He exerted all his influence to make them accept his plan. 他用尽一切影响力使他们接受他的计划. • Her husband exerted a lot of pressure on her to succeed. 她丈夫殷切期望她能成功, 给了她很大的压力. • You'll have to exert yourself more if you want to pass your exam. 你若想考试及格, 就必须更加努力.

  42. expire断气;到期 • spir呼吸;精神 • conspire图谋 • expire • inspire(注入精神力量)使产生灵感 • aspire渴望; 追求 • despair(失去精神力量)绝望 • desperate绝望 孤注一掷 • prosper(面前出现生气勃勃的景象)繁荣

  43. exile流放 • exile流放 • banish流放国外;驱逐出境 • deport驱逐出境

  44. Habits acquired in youth--notably smoking and drinking--may increase the risk of ________ diseases in a person’s later life. • A) consecutive B) chronic • C) critical D) cyclical

  45. acquire • acquire学习得到 • obtain长时间努力得到 • gain赢得 • acquisition • require • requisite 需要的东西 • inquire/enquire • exquisite精美的

  46. consecutive • sec=follow • second the motion附议 • consecutive(secut=follow)连续的 • successive连续的execute执行;实施 处决 • CEO: chief executive officer • persecute(per=throughout一直跟随)迫害

  47. chronic • 疼痛的感觉 • chronic慢性的 • acute剧烈的,急性的 • painful • sore酸痛 • agonize极度痛苦 • stabbing刺痛 • chron=time • chronic • chronicle编年史 • synchronize(syn相同的)使同步;使…一致

  48. critical • a critical remark • We are at a critical time in the history. • be critical of 对…吹毛求疵 • critic批评家 • criticize; criticism • crisis危机 • crit=评判 • criterion criteria(pl.)标准

  49. F. W. Woolworth was the first businessman to erect a true skyscraper to ________ himself, and in 1929, A1 Smith, a former governor of New York, sought to outreach him. • A) portray B) proclaim • C) exaggerate D) commemorate

  50. erect • erect a monument • rect=straight; right • correct • direct • rectangle矩形,长方形 • rectify纠正;校正