Nutrition for Special Situations Unit 6 HUM-FNW-6 Created by Katie Gilbert Foster Locust Grove High School Nutrition and Food Science
Standard • HUM-FNW-6: Investigate the health and nutrition requirements of individuals and families with special needs. • 6.1 Determine the health and nutrition requirements of athletes, young children, and older adults • 6.2 Determine the health and nutrition requirements for vegetarians and people with food allergens.
Nutrition for Young Children • Ages 6-12 children grow continuously • They develop many habits they will carry with them throughout their lifetime. • This is the time for parents to set good examples for their children and encourage them to try new foods. • DO NOT use food as a reward or punishment.
Nutrition for Young Children • 6 year olds and 12 year olds need different amounts of food but the same types of foods. • Children’s appetites are fairly regular so you can judge their energy needs. • Just like us they should be getting food from all food groups at each meal • They prefer familiar foods but they still need those that are nutrient dense.
Nutrition for Young Children • As they get older they will want more variety and want to try more foods. • Their serving sizes will also increase. • Each meal should supply about 1/3 of the days needed nutrients and calories. • Many children have trouble eating enough foods that meet their nutritional needs.
Nutrition for Young Children • Snacks can provide additional nutrients and can be things that children enjoy. • Fresh Fruit • Raw Vegetables • Low-fat Cheese • Yogurt • Raisins • Whole grain crackers with peanut butter
Nutrition for Young Children • Children who skip breakfast don’t obtain the nutrients they need. • Breakfast provide ¼ of the days nutrients • Think outside the box: Breakfast • Yogurt • Tomato soup * More important for them to eat breakfast than to skip it.
Nutrition Amounts for Young Children Ages 9-13 Need… • 1 ½ cups Fruit • 2 cups Vegetables • 5 oz Grains • 5 oz Protein • 3 cups Dairy • 5 tsp Oil Ages 4-8 Need… • 1-1 ½ cups Fruit • 1 ½ cups Vegetables • 5 oz Grains • 4 oz Protein • 2 ½ cups Dairy • 4 tsp Oil
Nutrition for Older Adults • Foods eaten by older adults need to be more nutrient dense than those younger than them. • Older adults • Decrease physical activity • Need less energy to carry on vital processes • Require fewer calories
Nutrition for Older Adults • Diets of older adults tend to be LOW in the following… • Calcium • Potassium • Fiber • Magnesium • Vitamins A, C & E * For some older adults B12 and D are also concerns.
Osteoporosis in Older Adults • Osteoporosis is a major problem for older adults • Older woman are at the greatest risk for this because women have less bone mass then men. • Women also have more demands on their calcium stores than men because of pregnancies. • Hormonal changes after menopause also contribute to osteoporosis. • Increasing your calcium after osteoporosis develops will not cure osteoporosis.
Special Problem in Older Adults • Limited Income • Can’t afford nutritious foods • Food Stamp Programs • Difficulty in Shopping • Cause them to miss meals • Some grocery stores deliver for a small fee • Meals on Wheels • Church and Civil groups • Loneliness • Unappealing to eat • Eating is a social activity for some • Senior Centers (nutritious meals & activities) • Church & Civic Centers
Nutrition Amounts for Older Adults • Men 51+ Need… • 2 Cups Fruit • 2 ½ Cups Vegetables • 6 oz Grains • 5 ½ oz Protein • 3 Cups Dairy • 6 tsp Oil • Woman 51+ Need… • 1 ½ cups of Fruit • 2 cups of Vegetables • 5 oz Grains • 5 oz Protein • 3 cups of Dairy • 5 tsp Oil
Nutrition for Athletes • Athletes have a high need for increased calories • 55-60% should come from complex carbohydrates. (whole grain breads, cereals, pasta, rice and starchy vegetables) • Choose lean meats and protein • Low-fat and fat free dairy products to meet the need for calcium. • Fresh fruits and vegetable will furnish the needed vitamins and minerals.
Nutrition for Athletes • Most athletes can meet their nutrition needs if they are following MyPlate. • Added supplements are not necessary unless a registered dietician is consulted and advises that there is a need for this. • Costly • Ineffective • Dangerous
Dehydration in Athletes • Water is most likely to affect sports performance. • Loosing a lot of fluids during practice and competitions which can cause dehydration to happen quickly. • Before the event begin drinking fluids. • During the event drink ½ -1 cup of water in 15 minute intervals. • After you should consume more fluids.
Dehydration in Athletes • Sodium in sports drinks replaces the lost sodium during the event. • Water along with a normal well balanced diet can make up for the loss of sodium during an event.
Nutrition for Vegetarians • A Vegetarianeats a diet built partly or entirely on plant foods. • Lacto-ovo vegetarians include dairy products and eggs. • Vegans eat no animal products or animal by-products. • Protein sources: legumes, nuts and grains.
Nutrient Concerns for Vegetarians • Vitamin D • Vitamin B12 • Calcium • Iron • Zinc • Certain deficiencies can stunt growth in infants, children & teens. • They can affect the health of pregnant & lactating woman & their babies * People in these groups need to consult a dietitian about their diet to make sure they are consuming the correct nutrients.
Nutrition for those with Food Allergens • A food allergy involves a response to the body’s immune system. • Blood Test will verify if you have these allergies. • Symptoms May Include • Diarrhea • Vomiting • Skin Rashes • Runny Nose • Most Common Food Allergies -Milk - Eggs -Fish - Shellfish -Tree nuts -Peanuts -Wheat -Soybeans
Resources • Largen, V., & Bence, D. (2008). Guide to good food. Tinley Parks, Illinois: The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.