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Carbonate sediments, facies, & depositional environments

Carbonate sediments, facies, & depositional environments. http://smu.edu/earthsciences/academics/courses/geol3472/. Carbonate Platforms.

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Carbonate sediments, facies, & depositional environments

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  1. Carbonate sediments, facies, & depositional environments http://smu.edu/earthsciences/academics/courses/geol3472/

  2. Carbonate Platforms A carbonate platform is a sedimentary body which possesses topographic relief, and is composed of autochthonous calcareous deposits (Wilson, 1975).

  3. Carbonate platforms: Ramps progressive increase in water depth basinward

  4. Modern carbonate ramp: southern Persian Gulf arid climate

  5. southern Persian Gulf facies & environment distribution

  6. southern Persian Gulf arid tidal flat: sabkha

  7. Nodular gypsum precipitating within the sabkha

  8. The majority of the world’s oil reserves occur in carbonate ramp facies of the Middle East World Oil Reserves

  9. Progradation of carbonate ramp facies results in an overall coarsening-upward succession, perhaps capped by evaporite facies if arid climate

  10. Standard Facies Zones ( Wilson, 1975)

  11. Wilson’s (1975) Standard Facies Belts

  12. Wilson’s (1975) Standard Facies Belts

  13. Carbonate platforms: Rimmed shelves

  14. Great Barrier Reef, Northeast Australia - reef-rimmed shelf

  15. Modern rimmed carbonate shelf: South Florida Shelf

  16. South Florida Shelf (infrared satellite image) Florida Bay - muddy inner shelf Florida Keys - exposed Pleistocene reef

  17. Cross-section of South Florida Shelf

  18. Muddy, skeletal wackestone: inner shelf facies

  19. Bioturbated inner shelf limestone

  20. Acropora palmata - dominant reef-building coral

  21. Distribution of reef facies

  22. Cretaceous rudist reef facies, Oman

  23. Permian reef complex, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas-New Mexico

  24. Geologic map of Guadalupe Mtns.- west Texas and southern New Mexico

  25. Oblique aerial view of Guadalupe Mountains - looking north

  26. Interpretation of Permian facies belts, Guadalupe Mountains

  27. oolitic sand belt, Bahamas

  28. outcrop and photomicrograph of ooid grainstone

  29. Rimmed carbonate shelves - Oolite sand shoal facies Forereef facies

  30. Submersible photo of cemented slope beds, Bahamas - 40° angle

  31. Cambrian forereef slope, Last Chance Range, California

  32. Cambrian forereef slope facies

  33. Jurassic carbonate turbidites, Oman

  34. Idealized progradational • carbonate rimmed • shelf succession • overall coarsening-up • pattern from fine-grained • toe-of-slope muds • to forereef slope (reef talus) to reef boundstone • or oolite shoal deposits (perhaps with finer-grained shelf-lagoon facies on top)

  35. Response of carbonate platforms to changing sea level 1 - transgressive response to rising sea level

  36. Response of carbonate platforms to changing sea level 2 - regressive response to falling sea level

  37. Response of carbonate platforms to changing sea level 3 - exposure during maximum sea level fall

  38. Carlsbad Caverns

  39. Formation of karst landforms, caverns and cave systems during exposure of carbonate terrain

  40. karst topography of Florida (exposed carbonate platform) with numerous sinkholes

  41. Stone Forest, China - pinnacle karst terrain

  42. Adriatic Coast humid karst terrain

  43. Cretaceous paleokarst - breccia-filled sinkhole, Texas

  44. Superimposed scales of stratigraphic cyclicity, Cambrian Nevada

  45. Superimposed scales of stratigraphic cyclicity

  46. Meter-scale carbonate cycles, Cambrian, Nevada - alternation of dark, shallow subtidal limestones with light, dolomitized tidal flat facies

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