Download slides and course outline at: www.caad.au.edu - AD3112 BRAND POSITIONING ANDBRAND PERSONALITY By A.Autcha Sudhankitara (A. JIG) AD3112
Brand Positioning • Brand positioning refers to ‘determining desired brand knowledge structures’ (Keller, 2008: 98). • Brand positioning refers to determining the part of the brand identity that is to be actively communicated to the target audience. • ‘Brand positioning is at the heart of marketing strategy’ (Keller, 2008: 98). ‘Good brand positioning helps to guide marketing strategy by clarifying what a brand is all about, how it is unique and how it is similar to competitive brands, and why consumers should purchase and use it’ (Keller, 2008: 98). • Brand position refers to ‘the standing of a brand in comparison with its competitors in the minds of customers, prospects, and other stakeholders’ (Duncan, 2008: 75). • Brand position refers to ‘the part of the brand identity that is to be actively communicate to the target audience” (Aaker, 1996, p. 71; p. 176).
Brand Positioning Analysis • 1. Self Analysis • 2. Competitive Analysis • 3. Subset Analysis • 4. Target Analysis
Brand Positioning Analysis1. Self Analysis Self Analysis is the process to find our brand identity and associations and what are our previous brand positions.
Brand Positioning Analysis2. Competitive Analysis • Competitive Analysis: In this analysis what we need to know is who are our competitors? (Competitor Identification) Competitors
Brand Positioning Analysis2. Competitive Analysis When you analyze your competitors, what you need to know? Direct or Indirect Competitors ? What are the competitors’ brand identities and associations? What are the competitors’ previous brand positions?
Brand Positioning Analysis3. Subset Analysis • Points of difference (PODs) refers to ‘attributes or benefits that consumers strongly associate with a brand, positively evaluate, and believe that they could not find to the same extent with a competitive brand’ (Barwise & Meehan as cited in Keller, 2008: 107) • ‘Points of parity (POPs) refers to ‘attributes or benefits that are not necessarily unique to the brand but may in fact be shared with other brands’ (Keller, 2008: 109).
Brand Positioning Analysis3. Subset Analysis Consumers’ actual brand choices often depend on the perceived uniqueness of brand associations’ (Keller, 2008: 108).
Brand Positioning Analysis4. target analaysis • ‘Identifying the consumer target is important because different consumers may have different brand knowledge structures and thus different perceptions and preferences for the brand’ (Keller, 2008: 99). • Method: • Gathering the Target Insights by using ‘Segmentation bases’ • What are the PODs that the target prefer?
Segmentation Bases • Descriptive or customer-oriented: what kind of person or organization the customer is. (Who? Consumers Vs. Buyers) • Behavioral or product-oriented: how the customer thinks of or uses the brand or product. (depend on product category)
1. Descriptive or Consumer oriented Who? Consumers Vs. Buyers 1.1 Consumer Segmentation Bases 1.2 Business-to-business Segmentation Bases
1.1 Consumer Segmentation Bases • Psychographic • Value, opinion, and attitudes • Activities and lifestyle • Geographic • - International • - Regional • Behavioral • User status • Usage rate • Usage location • Brand loyalty • Benefit sought • Demographic • Income • Age • Sex • Race • Family
1.2 Business-to-business Segmentation Bases • Nature of good • Kind • Where used • Type of buy • Buying condition • Purchase location • Who buys • Type of buy • Demographic • Number of employees • Number of production workers • Annual sale volume • Number of establishments
2. Behavioral or product-oriented Ex. Product: Toothpaste • The sensory segment: seeking flavor and product appearance. • The sociable: Seeking brightness of teeth • The worriers: seeking decay prevention • The independent segment: seeking low price
Brand Personality Brand personality refers ‘the set of human characteristics associated with a given brand’ (Aaker, D., 1996, p. 141). There are 5 major dimensions of brand personality known as the Big Fivewhich are as following:
Sincerity Brand Personality • Sincerity brands are those which makes caring image towards customers by showing honesty, wholesome and Cheer. Link: Bear brand milk http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C9ZY9yGutyw
Excitement Brand Personality • These type of products promote daring, imaginative and adventurous environment and target people which are experiencers. Link Marlboro TVC Ad: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-FkoZZ63ZkM
Competence Brand Personality • Competence reflects that these brands are famous and successful in market. These products attract customers because they are reliable and intelligent. “MAKE IT GREAT”
Sophistication Brand Personality • Sophisticated brands are those brands, which target upper class and have charming look. They promote executives and decent style.
Ruggedness Brand Personality • Rugged brands are seen as outdoorsy and tough.
BrandAssetValuator Archetypes • Y&R Advertising Agency as cited in Solomon, 2011: 245)
Brand Personality Model (cont.) Self-expression Model: Brand personality can help create a self-expressive benefit that becomes a vehicle for the customer to express his or her own personality.” (Aaker, 1996, p. 83)
Brand Personality Model Relationship Basis Model: As human personalities affect relationships between people, brand personality can be the basis of a relationship between the customer and the brand.” (Aaker, 1996, p. 84) • For example, relationship metaphors: • A weekend fun companion: COKE • A person who you respect: IBM or the Wall street journal
The Brand positioning statement • According to Franzen and Moriarty (2009: 168), the brand positioning can be verbalized in a statement, containing the following 7 elements Brand positioning statement is A statement that describe the “place” that brand should occupy in the minds of target consumers. How brand is seen in the marketplace. Focuses on what is unique to the brand. Target or customer group Product category Brand name Benefit Competitors Reasons Brand personality
The Brand positioning statement 7 elements of Brand positioning statement To _______________ (target customer group) buying _______________ (product category), the brand _______________ (brand name) offers _______________ (benefit) over _______________ (competitors). The reason is _______________ (reasons why). The brand personality can be described as _______________ (brand personality).
Assignment 3 Brand Positioning and Brand Personality • Marks Allocation = 10% • Group Members = 2-4 peoples • Task: • Choose 3 existing “product brands” with the same product category. • Analyze the brand identity and brand associations of your chosen “product brands”. • Conduct a subset analysis to identify the POPs and PODs of your chosen product brands. • Create your product brand's Positioning Statement. (Choose only one product brands that your target prefer POD) • Prepare = Keynote or PowerPoint presentation • Duration = 10 minutes/Group