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Political and Economic Analysis

Political and Economic Analysis

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Political and Economic Analysis

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  1. Political and Economic Analysis Chapter 3

  2. Analysis • Page 48-49: Read through the ad regarding evian • Read “Analyze the Ad” and be prepared to talk about the section of Market Talk • Page 50-51 • Read “Guide to the Photo” and be prepared to talk about the “Quick Think”

  3. Economy • An economy is how a nation makes economic choices that involve how the nation will use its resources to produce and distribute goods and services (G & S) to meet the needs of its population • A country’s resources determine economic activities such as manufacturing, buying selling, transporting, and investing • How has this changed over time? What are the leading factors?

  4. Resources • All things used in producing G’s & S’s • Factors of production when referring to resources • Land • Labor • Capital • Entrepreneurship

  5. Factors of Production Land Labor All the people who work Full and part-time workers Managers Professionals in the private and public sector Companies invest in their employees Creates an advantage over other countries • Everything contained in the earth or in the seas • AKA Raw Materials • Used for making G’s & S’s that are marketed to customers • Crude oil, ore, gas • Lake water and all living things within it • Trees, plants and soil • Best place for Skiing? • Most produced oil? • Best place for cocoa bean?

  6. Factors of Production Capital Entrepreneurship The skills of people who are willing to invest their time and money to run a business Organize factors of production to create the G’s & S’s that are part of an economy The employers of a population • Money to start and operate a business • Also includes goods used in the production process • Machinery, tools, computers • Buildings • Raw materials that have been transformed into useful form (ie. Steel) • Includes infrastructure • Physical development of a country: roads, ports, sanitation, facilities, utilities

  7. Scarcity • The difference between what consumers want and need and what the available resources are • Forces nations to make economic choices • US has an abundance of labor, capital, natural resources and entrepreneurs • However, several individuals live in poverty, thus not all needs/wants are being met for ALL citizens • Underdeveloped nations may not have as many resources (ex: natural resources, minimal capital)

  8. Economic Systems • Countries with different economic systems have different approaches when making decisions about the G’s & S’s it provides • The way nations answer three basic questions defines their economic system: • Which G’s & S’s should be produced? • How should the G’s & S’s be produced? • For whom should the G’s & S’s be produced?

  9. Economies • Mixed Market Command Full government involvement in economic decisions Government controls all factors of production What? Dictator or gov. group decides was is needed based on what they believe is important How? Government controls all employment opportunities, benefits, etc. For Whom? Government decides who will receive what is produced (generally for equality) • Individuals, companies, and government involvement are present • US and Canada are considered mixed (amongst almost all) • Government run entities • Laws and Regulations • Social Programs • No government Involvement in economic decisions • Individuals and companies own the means of production and businesses compete for consumers • What? • Consumers- through purchases • How? • Businesses-most efficient way • For Whom? • Consumers – Monetary exchange

  10. Political Philosophies • Socialism Capitalism Communism A social, political, and economic philosophy in which the government, usually authoritarian, controls the factors of production No private ownership of property or capital Theory G’s & S’s are available to all, therefore the society is classless All are assigned jobs In theory: no unemployment, all are paid, housed, fed, and are provided medical Cuba & North Korea Losely, China, Loas, Vietnam • Originally referred to system on its way to the communist ideal to a classless society • Most countries are defined as socialist have democratic political institutions • Increased amount of gov involvement than that of capitalism • More social services (ex. Free or low cost medical, pensions, elderly care • Government run key industries • Canada, German, Sweden • Characterized by marketplace competition and private ownership of businesses • Great concern over its people and those who cannot care for themselves • Social Services • However does not match that of a socialist country • Most frequently associated with capitalism is democracy • Power should be in the hands of the people • US and Japan are classified as capitalist

  11. Economies in Transition Making the change from command to market economies State owned industries have moved toward privatization Moving Toward Privatization Developing Economies Mostly poor countries with little industrialization Developing infrastructure and become more prosperous Education and foreign investment are keys to success Chad (Central Africa) Abundance for export: cotton, cattle, and gum arabic An investment into their oil fields for export • Many socialist countries are selling some of their state-run businesses to help balance their budgets • Higher costs: National health care, unemployment and retirement • Great Britain • Sold its national phone company, national steel company, national sugar company, British Airways.

  12. Review • Explain how the infrastructure of a country is related to the factors of production • What four broad categories do economists use to classify all economic systems? • In which economic system does the government let the market answer the three basic economic questions?

  13. Review • In a country with a population of 300,000,000, how many people would be considered below poverty line if the percentage in that category was 12.7%?

  14. Economy and Marketing • A healthy economy has 3 goals • Increase productivity • Decrease unemployment • Maintain stable prices • Keeping track of these helps aid in decision making

  15. Economic Measurements • Accurate information about an economy is essential to the “who” process • Key economic measurements to determine strength • Labor productivity • Gross Domestic Product • Gross National Product • Standard of Living • Inflation Rate • Unemployment Rate

  16. Labor Productivity • Output per worker hour measured over a period of time • Increase productivity in what ways? • Invest in new equipment • Employee work efficiency • Training • Financial incentives • Worker specialization

  17. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) • Output of G’s & S’s produced by labor and property located within the country • US uses this as its primary measurement • Annual reporting: Fiscal Year October – September

  18. GDP Continued…

  19. GDP Continued… • Made up of the sum of: • Private Investment (I) • Government spending (G) • Personal/Consumer Spending (C) • Net exports = Exports – Imports (X-M) GDP = C + I + G + (X-M) If net exports are negative, it will have a negative impact on the GDP

  20. Gross National Product (GNP) • Total dollar value of G’s & S’s produced by a nation • Not “where” it takes place but who is responsible for it • Ford – Plant in England • US used GNP as its primary measurement before 1991

  21. Standard of Living • A measurement of the amount of quality of G’s & S’s that a nation’s people have • Quality of life • GDP / population = per capita GDP or • GNP / population = per capita GNP • Correlation between industrialized nations and high standards of living

  22. Inflation Rate • Inflation • Rising prices • Stable economy = 1% to 5% (low) • Devastating economy = 10% + • 1960’s – 1980’s • Government raises interest rates to discourage borrowing • Income vs Inflation

  23. Inflation Rate Continued… • 2 Measures of Inflation • Consumer Price Index (CPI) • Producer Price Index (PPI) • CPI • Measures the change in price over a period of time of retail G’s & S’ used by the average urban household • AKA Cost of living index • Food, housing, utilities, transportation, medical care • PPI • Measures wholesale price levels in the economy • Considered the trendsetter as prices get passed along to consumers • Decrease in PPI = decrease in CPI

  24. Business Cycle

  25. Business Cycle

  26. Business Cycle

  27. Business Cycle

  28. Business Cycle

  29. Business Cycle Continued…