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CHANGES ON THE WESTERN FRONTIER

CHANGES ON THE WESTERN FRONTIER

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CHANGES ON THE WESTERN FRONTIER

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  1. CHANGES ON THE WESTERN FRONTIER CHAPTER 5: US History Mr. Basich

  2. World: 1869 – Suez Canal is opened. 1900 – Boxer Rebellion takes place in China. United States: 1881 – James Garfield is assassinated – Chester Arthur becomes President. 1890 – Sioux are massacred at Wounded Knee. Timeline: What’s Going On?

  3. Section 1: Objectives • By the end of this lesson I will be able to: • 1. Contrast the cultures of Native Americans and white settlers and explain why white settlers moved west. • 2. Identify restrictions imposed by the government on Native Americans and describe the consequences. • 3. Identify the government’s policy of assimilation as well as continuing conflicts between Native Americans and settlers.

  4. Section 1: Cultures Clash On The Prairie Main Idea: The cattle industry boomed in the late 1800’s, as the culture of the Plains Indians declined. Why it Matters Now: Today, ranchers and Plains Indians work to preserve their cultural traditions. Key Terms: Great Plains Treaty of Fort Laramie Assimilation Dawes Act Battle of Wounded Knee Key Terms / Names: Sitting Bull George A. Custer

  5. 30 How is everyone feeling today? • Great • Good • Average • Not so good • Bad

  6. SECTION 1: CULTURES CLASH ON THE PRAIRIE • The Indians had little contact with the “white man” • Great Plains – the grassland extending through the west-central portion of the US. • The Great Plains were hunting grounds for the Indians THE GREAT PLAINS

  7. THE BUFFALO • The Spanish had brought buffalo to America • The Indians hunted the buffalo • Uses: • 1. Food • 2. Clothing • 3. Bones for tools and weapons BUFFALO WERE USED FOR FOOD, SHELTER AND CLOTHING

  8. FAMILY LIFE ON THE PLAINS • Men were hunters, while women helped butcher the game and prepare it • This is called a hunter-gatherer community. • Tribes were very spiritual and no one “owned” the land….Until the “white man” came

  9. :30 Why was the buffalo so important to the plains Indians? • They were more plentiful than horses • They were faster than horses • They could be used for many purposes • They weren’t that important

  10. SETTLERS PUSH WESTWARD The white settlers began to push Westward in search of land to start a living Since no one “owned” the land – they took it! Soon, gold was discovered in Colorado This lead hundreds of thousands of settlers west into the Great Plains A COVERED WAGON HEADS WEST

  11. THE GOVERNMENT RESTRICTS NATIVES • The U.S. government backed the settlers in disputes with the Indians • Railroad companies began to lay track right through Indian lands • The Indians will soon begin to fight back RAILROADS GREATLY IMPACTED NATIVE LIFE

  12. 30 Why did the settlers continue to pursue land in the West? • The government supported them • The railroads supported them • They found gold • All of the above

  13. NATIVES AND SETTLERS CLASH Initially, the government set aside land for the Indians Then they went back on their decision and had their military enforce the law Massacre at Sand Creek; US military attack killing 150 native women and children Sand Creek was the first major attack on the Indians

  14. Death On The Bozeman Trail: • Bozeman Trail – traveling trail that ran directly through Indian hunting grounds. • Whites and Indians fought over this land. • The Treaty of Laramie closed the trail and moved the Indians to a reservation. • Sitting Bull - the leader of the Sioux, didn’t sign the treaty.

  15. Lesson One: Objectives (cont.) • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: • 1. Identify restrictions imposed by the government on Native Americans and describe the consequences. • 2. Identify the government’s policy of assimilation as well as continuing conflicts between Native Americans and settlers.

  16. 30 Did You Have a Nice Weekend? • Yes • No • It wasn’t bad

  17. OTHER CONFLICTS AND BATTLES • Custer’s Last Stand occurred in early 1876 when Colonel George A. Custer - leader of the 7th Calvary) reached Little Big Horn • Led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, the natives crushed Custer’s troops • They won because they knew the “lay of the land” ONE OF THE FEW NATIVE VICTORIES WAS LITTLE BIG HORN

  18. 30 What was the best reason why the Indians didn’t want to give up their land? • Money • Hunting • Room for more homes • None of the above

  19. The Battle of Little Big Horn

  20. 30 What was the main reason why Custer was beat by Sitting Bull? • The Indians had superior weaponry • Custer’s troops didn’t want to fight • The Indians had a tactical advantage • Custer ran out of ammunition

  21. THE DAWES ACT - 1887 White settlers wanted the Indians to be more like them Assimilation – A plan under which Native Americans would give up their beliefs and way of life and become a part of the white culture. The Dawes Act called for the break up of reservations and the introduction of natives into American life Most Indian land would soon become white land FAMOUS DEPICTION OF NATIVE STRUGGLE

  22. NATIVE LANDS BY 1894

  23. 30 What was the point of the Dawes Act? • To get the Indians to act more like the settlers • To allow the Indians to live in peace • To force the Indians to work for the settlers • To give the Indians money for their troubles

  24. THE DESTRUCTION OF THE BUFFALO • Whites began to hunt buffalo for fur and sport (sometimes from trains) – they would only take the fur • 1800: 65 million buffalo roamed the plains • 1890: less than 1000 remained • Indians saw this as a insult and a waste of resources

  25. 30 The settlers killing the buffalo was: • An insult to the Indians • Harmful to the Indians food supply • A way to control the Indians • All of the above

  26. BATTLE OF WOUNDED KNEE The Seventh Cavalry (Custer’s old regiment) rounded up 350 Sioux and took them to Wounded Knee, S.D. A shot was fired – within minutes the Seventh Cavalry slaughtered 300 unarmed Natives This became known as the Battle of Wounded Knee. HUNDREDS OF CORPSES WERE LEFT TO FREEZE ON THE GROUND

  27. Did We Meet Our Objectives? • Can You: • 1. Contrast the cultures of Native Americans and white settlers and explain why white settlers moved west. • 2. Identify restrictions imposed by the government on Native Americans and describe the consequences. • 3. Identify the government’s policy of assimilation as well as continuing conflicts between Native Americans and settlers.

  28. Section 2: Objectives • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: • 1. Explain the rapid settlement of the Great Plains due to homesteading. • 2. Describe how early settlers survived on the plains and transformed them into profitable farm land.

  29. Section 2: Settling On The Great Plains Main Idea: Settlers on the Great Plains transformed the land despite great hardships. Why it Matters Now: The Great Plains region remains the breadbasket of the United States. Key Terms: Homestead Act Exoduster Key Terms: Morrill Act Bonanza Farm

  30. 32 0 30 Spirit Week Makes Me Feel: • Extremely Happy • Happy • Nothing at all • Unhappy • Extremely Unhappy

  31. SECTION 2: SETTLING ON THE GREAT PLAINS • The West was expanding rapidly – the transcontinental railroad (connected East and West of the USA) helped this • 1862 – Congress passed Homestead Act which allowed 160 free acres to any “head of household”

  32. The transcontinental railroad was completed in 1868. The Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads met in Promontory Point, Utah and laid a Golden Spike

  33. 30 0 of 32 The Homestead Act’s main goal was to: • Provide settlers with food to live • Provide settlers with enough land to start their lives • Provide settlers with nothing. • None of the above

  34. SETTLERS ENCOUNTER HARDSHIPS The frontier settlers faced extreme hardships – droughts, floods, fires, blizzards, locust plagues, and bandits Even so, 50 years later 30% of Americans lived west of the Mississippi River. – only 1% in 19=850. LOCUST SWARM

  35. INCREASED TECHNOLOGY HELPS FARMERS 1837 – John Deere invented a steel plow that could slice through heavy soil 1847 – Cyrus McCormick mass-produced a reaping machine Other inventions included a grain drill to plant seed, barbed wire, and corn binder JOHN DEERE’S STEEL PLOW HAD TO BE PULLED BY A HORSE OR MULE

  36. ECONOMIC DISTRESS HITS FARMERS • Between 1867 and 1887 the price of a bushel of wheat fell from $2.00 to 68 cents • WHY? • Railroad companies charged the farmers high prices to ship grain to buyers • In response, a new type of farm emerged called a Bonanza farm. • Bonanza Farm – huge single-crop farms of 15,000 – 50,000 acres.

  37. Did We Meet Our Objectives? • Can You: • 1. Explain the rapid settlement of the Great Plains due to homesteading. • 2. Describe how early settlers survived on the plains and transformed them into profitable farm land.

  38. Section 3: Objectives • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: • 1. Identify the problems farmers faced and their cooperative efforts to solve them. • 2. Explain the rise and fall of the Populist Party.

  39. Section 3: Farmers And The Populist Movement Main Idea: Farmers united to address their economic problems, giving rise to the Populist movement. Why it Matters Now: Many of the Populist reform issues, such as income tax and legally protected rights of workers, are now taken for granted. Key Terms: Grange Farmers’ Alliances Populism Bimetallism Gold Standard Key Names: Oliver Hudson Kelley William McKinley William Jennings Bryan

  40. Lesson Two Review: • 1862 – Congress passed Homestead Act which allowed 160 free acres to any “head of household” • Many flocked to the “open range” to start their lives – huge farms • Since so many were producing excess crops, prices fell drastically • Railroads also started to charge extremely high prices for crop transportation • Farmers couldn’t keep up and fell into great debt • In addition, bad weather spells were wreaking havoc on the crops • Who will help the farmers? Let’s find out!

  41. :30 This weekend I am: • Staying home • Going out of town • Not sure

  42. FARMERS ORGANIZE FOR CHANGE The Grange was created to fight the railroad abuses Soon the Grange and other Farmer Alliances – (Those who supported the farmers) numbered over 4 million members

  43. 30 What issue(s) were the farmers facing during this time period? • Tough weather • Decrease in crop prices • Tough legislation from the Railroads • Debt • All of the above

  44. 30 Why were the farmers fighting the Railroads? • They weren’t traveling to their towns • The seats were uncomfortable • They were charging high prices to use their services. • None of the above

  45. POPULIST PARTY IS BORN How do you get something changed? – GET POLITICAL!!! Populism – the movement of the people The Populist or People’s Party was formed THIS POLITICAL CARTOON SHOWS A POPULIST CLUBBING A RAILROAD CAR

  46. 30 What was the main goal of the populist party? • To protect the people (farmers) from unjust business practices • To enhance their own political power • To try to run the Railroad companies out of business • To build cities