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Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning in International Markets

Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning in International Markets

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Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning in International Markets

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  1. Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning in International Markets

  2. Developing an international marketing strategy • Segmenting • Targeting • Positioning

  3. Reasons for Global Market Segmentation • Country Screening • Global Market Research • Entry Decisions • Positioning Strategy • Marketing Mix Policy

  4. Type Of Segmentation • Grouping Countries • Segments within and across Foreign Markets

  5. Bases for Country Segmentation • Demographics • Socioeconomic Variables • stages of economic development • Per capita income • Culture • Political Conditions • Behavior-Based Segmentation • Life Style

  6. GLOBAL INCOME AND POPULATION: 1995 % of World Population % of World GNP Market GNP (billion) GNP Per Capita Population (million) World (Total) $25,097 $4,678 100 5,815 100 Triad (Total) 19,119 24,203 76 790 14 North America* 7,253 24,903 29 291 5 Japan 4,247 33,748 17 126 2 EU 7,619 20,435 30 373 6 Other High Income 844 34,415 3 25 <1 Upper Middle Income 2,239 4,397 9 509 9 Lower Middle Income 2,403 1,001 10 2,401 41 Low Income 491 300 2 1,640 28 Unavailable Data N/A N/A N/A 450 8 *Not including Mexico

  7. High Income (Advanced Countries) - Triad - Others Upper Middle Income (NIC's) Lower Middle Income (DC's) Low Income (LDC's) Basket Cases (BC's) + $14,000 + $2,500 + $500 < $500 Country Income Segmentation

  8. GLOBAL INCOME AND POPULATION: 1995 Purchasing Power Parity Compared % of world GNP with PPP % of world GNP GNP Per Capita GNP Per Capita with PPP GNP with PPP Market GNP (billion) World (Total) $25,097 $30,783 100 100 $4,678 $5,863 Triad (Total) 19,119 16,992 76 55 24,203 21,511 North America* 7,253 7,246 29 24 24,903 24,877 Japan 4,247 2,849 17 9 33,748 22,636 EU 7,619 6,898 30 22 20,435 18,502 Other High Income 844 631 3 2 34,415 35,904 Upper Middle Income 2,239 3,504 9 11 4,397 7,604 Lower Middle Income 2,403 7,480 10 24 1,001 3,126 Low Income 491 2,176 2 7 300 1,370 *Not including Mexico

  9. Standard of Living Number of people per: Schooling (av. years) Life Expectancy Doctor TV Phone McDonald’s China 70 5 724 37.5 76.9 384,000,000 Hong Kong 77 7 933 4.0 1.6 95,000 Japan 79 11 609 1.6 1.9 130,000 U.S. 76 12 404 1.2 1.3 28,000 Russia 60 275 150,000,000 Sources: WEFA, AsiaWeek, McDonald’s, The New York Times

  10. Successful Economic Union Requirements  Economic Compatibility  Political Compatibility  Geographic Proximity  Social Compatibility Weakness in some must be balanced by strengths in others

  11. Market Groups • Patterns of Multinational Cooperation • Regional Cooperation Groups • Free-Trade Area • Customs Union • Common Market • Political Union

  12. New Multinational Market Groups or Trading Blocks of the 21st Century lEuropean Union lEuropean Economic Area (EC and EFTA) lNorth American Free Trade Area lSouthern Cone-Mercosur lAsean Free Trade Area (AFTA) lCommonwealth of Independent States (CIS) lCentral European Free Trade Area (CEFTA)

  13. European Trade Areas European Community (EC) European Free Trade Area (EFTA) Belgium Italy Austria* Liechtenstein Denmark Luxembourg Finland* Norway* France The Netherlands Iceland* Sweden* Germany Portugal Switzerland Greece Spain Ireland United Kingdom EC Countries and EC Countries and Austria Austria Poland*** Finland Finland Sweden Hungary*** Iceland Norway Sweden European Unity (EU) European Economic Area (EEA) * Five founding members. ** Awaiting membership. *** Seeking membership.

  14. A Comparison of the EU and NAFTA Population GNP GNP (millions) ($ trillions)* (per capita)* EU 363.3 $ 7.79 $ 21,442 NAFTA 372.0 6.94 18,662 * U.S. $ 1992.

  15. Common Traits of Big Emerging Markets l Are physically large. l Have significant populations. l Represent considerable markets for a wide range of products. l Have strong rates of growth or the potential for significant growth. l Have undertaken significant programs or economic reform. l Are of major political importance within their regions. l Are "Regional Economic Drivers". l Will engender further expansion in neighboring markets as they grow.

  16. Big Emerging Markets Population GDP GDP Trade* (millions) ($ billions) (per capita) ($ billions) AsiaChina 1,188.0 $ 435.6 $ 367 $ 135.9Indonesia 191.2 126.4 661 63.0India 870.0 238.3 274 42.2South Korea 43.7 296.8 6,799 150.6 Latin AmericaMexico 89.5 333.3 3,722 85.9 Argentina 33.1 228.8 6,912 21.2 Brazil 156.8 409.2 2,609 55.8 AfricaSouth Africa 39.8 114.8 2,882 17.1 EuropePoland 38.4 83.6 2,178 35.6Turkey 58.8 156.0 2,747 38.9 Possible AdditionsColombia 33.4 43.5 1,303 12.3Thailand 57.8 104.0 1,801 65.1Venezuela 20.3 60.4 2,984 25.2Vietnam 69.5 17.5 252 3.2 * Imports and exports. SOURCES: "Big emerging Markets," Business America, Special Issue 1994, pp. 59-65 and for additional information, see "Indicators of Market Size for 115 Countries," Crossborder Monitor, August 31,1994.

  17. “Think” and “Feel” Country Clusters

  18. Plot of Concentration Versus Category Growth: Chocolate Industry

  19. Chocolate Market Two-Cluster Solution

  20. Chocolate Market Three-Cluster Solution

  21. Properties of a Market Segment • Properties • Measurable • Sizable • Accessible • Actionable • Competitive Intensity • Growth Potential

  22. Bases for Global Segments • Geographic • Demographic • Psychographic • Behavior • Benefits

  23. Average Monthly Expenditures for Chinese Households National and Urban Areas - 1994 National Urban Areas Food (includes eating out) $22.10 $38.00 Savings 11.40 17.00 Clothing 5.60 9.00 Child's Education 4.70 7.00 Home (includes Rent & Utilities) 4.30 8.20 Daily Goods other than Food 3.50 4.80 Medical Expenses & Drugs 2.30 4.00 Entertainment 1.30 3.20 SOURCE: Gallup China.

  24. Y&R’s Cross-Cultural Consumer Characterizations (4Cs)

  25. Global Scan Segmentation Study

  26. Life Style Exhibit : Typology of European Car Market

  27. Roper Starch Worldwide Global Study • Shopping Styles • Deal Makers (29%) - love the buying process • Price Seekers (27%) - place primary value on the product that they are buying • Brand Loyalists (23%) - purchase name brands and remain true to them • Luxury Innovators (21%) - seek new, prestigious brands 40,000 consumers in 40 countries

  28. How the World Shops Source: “How the World Shops,” Advertising Age, June 5, 1995, p.3.

  29. How the World Shops Source: “How the World Shops,” Advertising Age, June 5, 1995, p.3.

  30. How the World Shops Source: “How the World Shops,” Advertising Age, June 5, 1995, p.3.

  31. International Positioning Strategies • Global Positioning and Segmentation Strategies • Universal Segment / Uniform Positioning Theme • Universal Segment / Different Positioning Themes • Different Segment / Different Positioning Themes

  32. Global Positioning & Segmentation Strategies