United states history to 1865 GHSGT Review (Standards 1-9)
Standard 1 The Student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century.
Explain Virginia’s development; include the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, and relationships with Native Americans such as Powhatan, development of the House of Burgesses, Bacon’s Rebellion, and the development of slavery.
Jamestown, VA • First permanent English colony in North America (1607) • Business venture of the Virginia Company (Joint-Stock Company) • Planned to make money by sending people to America to find gold and other valuable natural resources • Then ship the resources back to England
House of burgesses • The Virginia Company established a legislative assembly • Similar to England’s Parliament • The first European-type legislative body in the New World
Brown gold • Tobacco • Tobacco quickly became a major cash crop • Important source of wealth in Virginia • Also lead to major social and economic divisions • Those who owned land • Those who did not • Tobacco cultivation was labor-intensive • They needed more laborers
Headright system • Anyone who paid their own way, or another's, would receive 50 acres of land
Indentured servants • In exchange for passage, food, and shelter – agreed to a limited term of servitude (4-7 years)
African laborers • Arrived on a Dutch ship in 1619 • Slave labor would eventually take over • As indentured laborers decreased… slave labor increased
Clash with the natives • Native Americans had lived for centuries on the land • Powhatan was the chief of the major tribe in the area • As more settlers arrived, they forced the Native Americans off their own land • They used it for agricultural purposes • Especially to grow tobacco
Bacon’s rebellion • Poor English and slave colonists staged an uprising against the governor and his landowning supporters • The landless rebels wanted harsher action against the Native Americans • The rebellion was put down • The Virginia House of Burgesses passed laws to regulate slavery • They didn’t want poor white colonists to side with slaves
Describe the settlement of New England: include religious reasons; relations with Native Americans (King Phillip’s War); the establishment of town meetings and development of a legislature; religious tensions that led to the founding of Rhode Island; the half-way covenant; Salem Witch Trials; and the loss of the Massachusetts charter and the transition to a royal colony.
New England • Established by the Puritans • Massachusetts Bay Company (joint-stock) • Massachusetts Bay Colony • Present-day Massachusetts • Most came with their whole family for a better life and to practice religion as they saw fit • Because of strict religious beliefs, they were not tolerant of others views
Town meetings • Communities were run through town meetings • In royal colonies there was an appointed royal governor and a partially elected legislature • Voting rights were limited to men who belonged to the church • Ministers tightly controlled church membership
Half-way covenant • As more children were born in America, many grew up and lacked a personal covenant (relationship) with God • The central feature of Puritanism • Puritan ministers encouraged a “half-way covenant” • Partial church membership for the children and grandchildren of the original Puritans
King Philip's war • An early and bloody conflict between English colonists and Native Americans • It was named after the leader of the Native Americans • King Philip’s Native American name was Metacom • Heavy loss of life among the Native American population ended the war • Large areas of southern New England became English settlements
Loss of a charter • In 1686, the British king canceled the Massachusetts charter • A legal document from the king that made it an independent colony • Wanted more control over trade in the colonies • Combined colonies in New England into a single territory governed from England • In 1691, Massachusetts Bay became a royal colony
Rhode island • Founded by religious dissenters from Massachusetts • They were more tolerant of different religious beliefs
Salem witch trials • In the 1690s, a series of court hearings saw over 150 Massachusetts colonists accused of witchcraft • 29 were convicted • 19 were hanged • At least six more people died in prison • Causes: • Extreme religious faith • Stress from a growing population and its bad relations with Native Americans • The narrow opportunities for women and girls to participate in Puritan society
Explain the development of the mid-Atlantic colonies; include the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam and subsequent English takeover, and the settlement of Pennsylvania.
Pennsylvania • Was in the territory between New England and Virginia • A colony founded by the religiously tolerant Quakers • Led by William Penn
New Amsterdam • North of Pennsylvania • Settled by the Dutch • In 1664, the British conquered the colony and renamed it New York • A diverse population, New York tolerated different religions
Quebec • France settled colonies to secure its valuable natural resources (Mercantilism) • The first permanent French settlement in North America • Instructed their colonists to spread the Catholicism in the New World • The British encouraged their colonists to establish Protestantism
Analyze the impact of location and place on colonial settlement, transportation, and economic development; include Jamestown and New York City.
Impact of location • Rivers (ports) make easy access to the ocean • This helps with trade • A lot easier that trying to go across land
Standard 2 The student will trace the ways that the economy and society of British North America developed.
Explain the development of mercantilism and the trans-Atlantic trade.
mercantilism • British colonies influenced by mercantilism (economic theory) • Held that Earth had a limited supply of wealth in the form of natural resources • Especially gold and silver • Best way to become a stronger nation was to acquire the most wealth
mercantilism • World’s wealth thought to be limited • The more one country had, the less another could • As a nation became stronger and wealthier, its enemies became poorer and weaker • British government view American colonies as sources of wealth • Would make Britain wealthier and stronger • If Britain had more land (colonies), that’s less for other countries • American goods meant more money from trade • That’s less money for other countries • Great Britain would get greater • Its European rivals would get weaker
Trans-atlantic trade • Mercantilism inspired Parliament to control trans-Atlantic trade with its American colonies • All goods had to travel in British ships • Any goods exported to Europe had to land first in Britain to pay British taxes • Some goods could only be exported to Britain • Designed to keep the colonies from competing against Britain • Some Americans responded by becoming smugglers
Describe the Middle Passage, growth of the African population, and African-American culture.
Growth of African population • Tobacco and other cash-crop farmers prospered • Expanded the size of farms • Never enough workers • To plant, grow, and harvest • Turned to African slaves to do this work • Many believed every black person was a savage who needed to be taken care of • Virginia Company founded Jamestown in 1607, no African slaves in British North America • By 1700 there were thousands • Majority were located in the Southern colonies
Triangular trade • Three-way voyage made by the slave ships • Ships loaded with rum, cloth, and other English goods sailed to Africa • Here they were traded for Africans originally enslaved by other Africans • The crew would buy tobacco and other American goods from profits they made by selling the slaves in the colonies • Then ship the tobacco and goods back to Britain
Middle passage • The slaves would be transported to the New World • Repeated for decades • It’s said you could smell them before you could see them • The slaves were packed like bundles of firewood • About two of every ten slaves died during the passage
African American culture • Slaves attempted to make the best of under the worst of circumstances • Rich with music, dance, basket-weaving, and pottery-making • They brought with them the arts and crafts skills of their various tribes • There could be a hundred slaves working on one farm and all from different tribes
Identify Benjamin Franklin as a symbol of social mobility and individualism.
Benjamin Franklin • One of the best known of America’s Founding Fathers • Born into a poor Boston family in 1706 • At 12 he became an apprentice to a printer (brother) • At 17 he ran away to Philadelphia to start a life of his own choosing • Later he sailed to London to gain more experience in the printing business • Returned to Philadelphia in 1726 as an experienced printer, writer, and businessman • Over his 84-year life, Franklin succeeded in making himself one of the world ’s leading authors, philosophers, scientists, inventors, and politicians
The great awakening • Worship styles in the northeastern colonies changed during the mid 18th • Ministers said the people would feel God’s love only if they admitted their sins • Told that each believer should seek his or her own personal and emotional relationship with God • More important that just meeting together (Puritans) • Sermons attracted enormous audiences • Often traveled from colony to colony
The great awakening • Christianity grew • Although established churches lost members • Some preachers said American society had become as corrupt as the English society the colonists’ ancestors had escaped • As a result, some people started saying that America needed to cut its ties with Britain to keep its religion pure
Standard 3 The student will explain the primary causes of the American Revolution.
Explain how the end of Anglo-French imperial competition as seen in the French and Indian War and the 1763 Treaty of Paris laid the groundwork for the American Revolution.
French and Indian war • Was a long simmering rivalry between Great Britain and France • Competition for territory in North America • Broke out in 1754 • Great Britain challenged the French for control of land • Now Ohio and western Pennsylvania
French and Indian war • Native Americans tended to support the French • French were fur traders • Built forts rather than permanent settlements • Great Britain eventually won
Treaty of Paris (1763) • Ended the French and Indian War • Forced France to turn over Canada to Great Britain • France also surrendered all land east of the Mississippi River • Except New Orleans • Gave the British control of all American colonies’ • The colonists objected to the loss of control • Some Americans first got the idea of an American Revolution
Explain colonial response to such British actions as the Proclamation of 1763, the Stamp Act, and the Intolerable Acts as seen in Sons and Daughters of Liberty and Committees of Correspondence.
Proclamation of 1763 • Parliament passed laws to tax the colonists • To pay for the keeping a large standing army in North America • Protected Britain’s possessions and American colonists • Tensions increased with the Proclamation of 1763 • Americans were forbidden from settling beyond the Appalachian Mountains • Wanted to limit conflicts with Native Americans
Colonial resistance • Colonists believed the king and Parliament were violating their rights • Protection from taxation without representation • Right to a trial by a jury of their peers • Protection from searches without warrants • Protection from having troops quartered on their property • Actions to tax the colonists (enforce the tax laws) provoked a negative reaction • Eventually led to open rebellion
Stamp act • Required colonists to print: • Newspapers • Legal documents • Playing cards • Etc. • On paper bearing special stamps (like postage stamps) • Was the equivalent of paying a tax • Some colonists formed groups • Sons of Liberty • Daughters of Liberty