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S o c i a l

S o c i a l. By: Conrad Bhamani , Micco Brisker, Alex Butterwick , Brad Callaham , & M organ Childress. Up to 600 BCE. Americas- North: Olmec - Elite benefit commoners; South: Elite on raised platforms Europe- Celtic warriors dominated

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S o c i a l

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  1. Social By: Conrad Bhamani, Micco Brisker, Alex Butterwick, Brad Callaham, & Morgan Childress

  2. Up to 600 BCE • Americas- North: Olmec- Elite benefit commoners; South: Elite on raised platforms • Europe- Celtic warriors dominated • Middle East- Mesopotamian high class benefit from trade • Asia-Chinese family based with respected elders • Africa- Stratified society • Oceania- Polytheism society with social relations

  3. 600 BCE – 600 CE • America- North: Teotihuacan elite controlled; South: Moche commoners farmed • Europe- Roman slaves and citizens divided • Middle East- Persia warriors, peasants, and magi separated • Asia- Decline women status (Gupta Empire) • Africa- Christianity separated societies • Oceania-Animism

  4. 600 BCE – 1450 • America- Poor women central religious role; patriarchal society • Europe- Nobles unlimited power on serfs • Middle East- women live in seclusion • Asia- Revolt on female role in Buddhism because of Wu Zhao • Africa- Bantu Migrations • Oceania- Polytheism migrations

  5. 1450-1750 • America- Slavery • Europe- Peasants-serfdom, Wealthy- bourgeoisie • Middle East- Harem • Asia- Slavery in Patriarchal society • Africa- Slavery • Oceania- Disease epidemic decrease social interaction

  6. 1740-1900 • America- Abolition of slavery • Europe- Feminism • Middle East- Patriarchal society • Asia- Emancipation of Serfs • Africa- Ethnic tension • Oceania- New Zealand and Australia relations

  7. 1900 - Present • America- Transmission of US Culture • Europe-increased focus on human rights • Middle East- Social tension of Muslim and Jews • Asia- Japan Caste system change • Africa- Segregation of races (Europeans in Africa) • Oceania- Increase rights for aborigines

  8. APWH- Final Review Presentations: Thematic PowerPoint Alex Cronin, Tara Deehan, Katy Downs, Mustafa Faroon, Noah Gibson POLITICAL

  9. Up to 600 BCE AFRICA: Regional Kingdoms; North African Pharaohs; Kingdoms of Kushand Egypt; Tribal governments ASIA: Era of Warring States; Dynastic rule; Mandate of Heaven; Regional kingdoms and empires; tribal governments; Aryan invasions EUROPE: Village governments; Greek city- states; Greek colonization MIDDLE EAST: city-states; Code of Hammurabi; Persian Empire and Hellenistic Empire OCEANIA: Regional Kingdoms THE AMERICAS: Mesoamerica and Andes Mountain civilizations- small river civilizations that are closer to the ocean

  10. 600 BCE- 600 CE AFRICA: Kings couldn’t expand territory due to geographical land barriers; Pharaohs; Kingdoms of Kush, Axum and Ethiopia; Regional Kingdoms ASIA: Han dynasty dominated Eastern Asia by empires; Great Wall; centralized government; Mandate of Heaven EUROPE: Greece first to present democracy; Roman Empire; Byzantine Empire; Hellenistic Empire MIDDLE EAST: Persian Empire ruled by kings OCEANIA: Had regional kingdoms THE AMERICAS: Olmec left stone heads to commemorate past kings; Tribal government; city-states; Mayan civilizations; Andean societies and civilizations

  11. 600 CE- 1450 AFRICA: Regional kingdoms; Mamluk dynasties ASIA: Japanese feudalism; Tang and Song dynasties; Mongol and Ming dynasty EUROPE: Holy Roman Empire; Mongol invasions; Islamic Iberian peninsula; Byzantine Empire; Ottoman and Seljuk incursion MIDDLE EAST: Crusades; Mongol destruction of Baghdad OCEANIA: Regional kingdoms THE AMERICAS: Regional tribal organizations; Aztec and Incan Empires

  12. 1450-1750 AFRICA: Cape Colony founded; Regional kingdoms ASIA: Mughal Dynasty in India- Akbar rule; British tries to colonize; Ming China- bureaucracy and patronized the arts; TahMahal built for MumtazMahal by husband Shah Jahan EUROPE: Monarchies in Britain and France- maintained strong armies, established elaborate bureaucracies, imposed high taxes to support frequent wars on European continent MIDDLE EAST: The Ottoman Empire- fell due to size; too difficult to administer such a big empire; lost ability to maintain a large army and bureaucracy OCEANIA: Regional kingdoms THE AMERICAS: COLONIZATION- The Aztecs and Incas fell to the Spaniards

  13. 1740-1900 AFRICA: : Colonial rule under European powers (South Africa under British Rule) ASIA: European control over plantations, farms, and installed governments loyal to them EUROPE: British, France, and the Netherlands controlled colonies world-wide and had alliances with locals or installed their own governments MIDDLE EAST: Ottoman empires weakened due to political opposition due to reforms, standardized taxation, and to bring the central government control OCEANIA: The U.S. purchased the Philippines from Spain to keep it away from other imperialistic powers, they crushed resistance with force to keep its global interests THE AMERICAS: Spaniards overthrew the local Spanish officials, Agustín was overthrown and made a republic

  14. 1900- present AFRICA: Independence movements; Suez Crisis; ethnic conflicts ASIA: End of the Qing dynasty; world wars; Japanese occupation; communism (China); Korean War; Vietnam War; Russian Revolution; Cold War; glasnost; end of communism/ independence movements EUROPE: World Wars; Fascism; Berlin Wall; Terrorism; Communism MIDDLE EAST: Iranian Revolution; Iran- Iraq War; Persian Gulf War; War in Afghanistan; Terrorism (Al-Qaeda); US Coalition- Iraq War OCEANIA: World Wars; British common wealth THE AMERICAS: World War; Cold War; Civil Rights movements; US superpower; Mexican Revolution; Cuban Revolution; democracy

  15. Religion Rebecca Haber Clare Jamieson Brandon Kim Josh Gray Connor Greisinger

  16. Up to 600 B.C.E. Africa: In Egypt, used amulets to ward of evil, believed in diverse gods, pharaoh as chief priest of Egypt, afterlife central to their religion Asia: Shang China: people linked to the ruler, who was linked to the ancestors (using oracle bones), who were linked to Di (the supreme god); Zhou China: introduces idea of ruler's "Mandate of Heaven" Europe: Celts: polytheistic, worship deities like the god of light, buried their dead; Greeks: polytheistic, sacrifice, oracles Middle East: In Mesopotamia, had many priests, temple complexes with ziggurats, feared gods because of natural disasters, animal sacrifices Oceania: local traditional religions (not yet widely inhabited) Americas: Polytheistic deities both male and female, shamans gave the people advice from the god

  17. 600 B.C.E.- 600 C.E. Africa: small amounts of Christianity in the north, largely dominated by polytheistic religions- gods based on nature and human characteristics Asia: Hinduism(focuses on dharma and moksha) and Buddhism founded in India, Buddhism widely accepted throughout Asia(based on 4 noble truths and 8 fold path), philosophies (Confucianism, Legalism, Daoism) rise in China Europe: spread of Christianity beginning in Roman Empire and small amounts of Judaism Middle East: Judaism common, founding of Christianity, Zoroastrianism in Iran Oceania: small amounts of Hinduism and Buddhism, most people still polytheistic The Americas: polytheistic values, many spirits and gods based on nature, religious sacrifices common

  18. 600 C.E.- 1450 Africa:Islam spread over Northern Africa (Arabia Algeria Morocco Spain) Asia:Neo-Confucian revolts against Buddhism (750-879) [Han Yu was precursor to Neo-Confucianism; Buddhism "undermined family"] Europe:Crusades (1095-1204): Armed pilgrimages to Holy Land; Christians vs. Muslims; "Truce of God" = Christian motivation Middle East:Islam born in Arabia: prophet Muhammad = messenger of God/Allah; Islam = "Submission" to God Oceania:Rise of Islam in Indian Ocean Trade; 1400: Muslim trading communities Americas:Polytheism prominent; Teotihuacan and other cities; Mayans, Aztecs, etc. VS VS

  19. 1450-1750 Africa: Islam and Christianity continue to spread, though many traditional religions Asia: Dominated by Islam and Hinduism, Islam in Mughal empire, some Confucianism in China, European missionaries attempt to spread Christianity Europe: Christianity dominates Europe; Martin Luther starts the Protestant Reformation Middle East: Islam spreads throughout (ex. Hagia Sophia becomes a mosque) Oceania: Islam spreads due to trade with Africa and Middle East Americas: Christianity dominates due to colonization by Europe, Catholic missionaries educate and spread religion (ex. Jesuits in Canada)

  20. 1750-1900 Africa: through New Imperialism, endeavor of European and North American Christian missionaries to convert African "heathens", who found Christian ideals clashed with colonial exploitation Asia: Hong Xiuquan's Christian movement in China, seeing himself as the younger brother of Jesus with a mission to establish the "Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace" (led to Taiping rebellion) Europe: during French Revolution, Catholicism attacked by the government (forcing priests to marry, abolishing Sundays, etc.); clergy called "First Estate" Middle East: Tanzimat reforms in Ottoman Empire (in 1839), shrinking the jurisdiction of Shari'a (Islamic law), making Christians more in favor of Tanzimat than Muslims Oceania: after US annexation of Hawaii in 1898, many Americans move to Hawaii, bringing Christianity to the remote Pacific Americas: Latin America dominated by Catholicism; priests (Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and José María Morelos) driving force of revolution in Mexico

  21. 1900- Present Africa: Christianity spread through missionary schools, also teaching basic literacy (mostly west and south Africa) Asia: mix of religions/philosophies: Buddhism in southeast Asia, North Korea, Japan, and Tibet (China); Confucianism in China; Hinduism in India; and Islam in India and Bangladesh Europe: after dissolution of Soviet Union, "ethnic cleansing" of Muslims in Bosnia and Herzegovina by Orthodox Serbs • Middle East: conflict and animosity between Jewish Israel and Islamic Arab states (e.g. Palestine and Iran) • Oceania: today, mix of religions in Australia and New Zealand, but over 50% Christian • Americas: many adherents to the Catholic Church, which has influence on politics, including opposition to abortion and gay marriage; Evangelical Protestants a major conservative force in US since 2000s

  22. Intellectual Accomplishments of the World Hrisheek Radhakrishnan, Mikey Newell, Juanita Pardo, Charles Mills, Maddie Langley, Anairis Quinones

  23. Up to 600 B.C.E. • Structures and buildings – cities, momumental building, new skills used • Law codes – Hammurabi of Babylon, used for centuries • Writing – cuneiform, recordkeeping • Hawi – Compiled by Razi, most thorough medical encyclopedia of its time • Math – Base 60 number system (still used today in time)

  24. 600 B.C.E. – 600 C.E. • Africa: Bantu language invented and developed by sub-Saharan Africans • Asia: Confucius, philosophies based on governmental morality, social relationships and justice, Daoism, and Legalism • Europe: The language Latin was developed in the 6th century, Socrates, dialectic philosophy, Pax-Romana (the terms of peace) • Middle East: Persian militarism • Oceania: Australia - Culture didn’t diffuse past regions inhabited by individual societies, geography stories • The Americas: Inca - concept of sin and judgment

  25. 600 C.E. – 1450 • Renaissance – cultural and intellectual revival • Literature and art – religious, new meaning, Arabian Nights • Architecture – revived, new styles • Scholasticism – reconcile reason with faith in God and Christianity • Universities – places of learning • Arabic Numerals created in India, spread all the way to Europe

  26. 1450 – 1750 • Scientific Revolution: scientific method, new discoveries like state of matter • Enlightenement: philosophers and new ways of thinking (like application of scientific method to government) • Voltaire, Locke, Rousseau, Montesquieu – big philosophesr at the time • Heliocentric Theory – Earth revolves around sun, gamechanging • Isaac Newton’s laws of motion – understood gravity • Galileo – Confirmed Copernicus’s theories, suffered for it

  27. 1750 – 1900 • Thomas Edison – Invented incandescent lightbulb • Muhammad Ali – Egyptian intellectual, modernized Egypt in early 19th century • Anarchists – intellectual group of revolutionaries who fought to abolish all private property and government, usually with the use of violence • Mercantilism – intellectual system, government policies tried to promote overseas trade between countries and their colonies • Positivism – intellectual system, social and economic problems could be solved using the scientific method • Laissez Faire – intellectual system, the government should refrain from interfering in economic affairs

  28. 1900 – Present • War Tactics – Trench Warfare, Dog Fights, Use of Gas • Marxism and Communism play huge roles as opposition to Capitalism • Alliances (Allies, Central Powers, Axis Powers) and groups of Countries (League of Nations, UN, EU) • Terrorism plays an increased role as a way to show that your government cannot protect you • New pro-environment groups and legislation • Feminism and protests for women to gain more rights, which they do

  29. SPRITE Review Technological By LeeAnn Rowley, Anna Rhodes, Danielle Stagger, and Matthew Shannon

  30. Up to 600 BCE (Asia) Indus River Valley- irrigation systems (Africa) Egypt-papyrus(writing medium) and mummification (Middle East) Mesopotamia-developed the first-known writing system known as cuneiform (Americas) Andean region- introduced metallurgy to the Western Hemisphere (Europe) Phoenicia(the Mediterranean)- luxury goods(ivory, glass and textiles) (Oceania) Australia-tribal art and jewelry

  31. 600 BCE to 600 CE Central Asia- transportation such as camels, horses and chariots were developed and used on road networks to assist trade (Europe) Rome-aqueduct(water conduits) Oceania-ships for trade within the Pacific Middle East- coinage  (Americas) Latin America- complex architecture (Africa) The Sahara- caravans and caravan routes

  32. 600 CE to 1450 Africa- spread of the use of iron Asia- paper mills, guns and cannons, moveable type, stirrup, The Silk Road Europe- Algebra, larger horses, armor for knights,moldboard plow, the horse collar, the breast-strap harness Middle East- invention and use of coins in monetary system Oceania- lanteen sail from Indian Ocean used Americas- levers and stone tools, mound-building, the bow and arrow, copper and alloy use,

  33. 1450 to 1750 Africa- dams, irrigation canals, and reservoirs to control water and flooding patterns Asia- gunpowder, high quality bronze and steel making, patrol ships (Korean), armored ships, gunpowder arrrow-launchers Europe- printing press invented in Germany, mathematics,crossbows,longbows pikes, firearms like an improved cannon Middle East- papermaking became common Oceania- influence of Chinese junks in ship making Americas-use of larger animals like the llama

  34. 1740 to 1900 Europe-modernizing-telegraphs, locomotives, cotton gins and pottery factory America's-modernizing-steam ships, Erie Canal Oceania-machinery used to get coffee and sugar from java Asia-modernizing-nemisissails to china Africa- industrialization leading to new technology Middle East-military technology

  35. 1900 to Present Americas-advancements in communication (telegraph), military(atomic bombs), and functionality(household appliances) were introduced and improved Asia-technologically advanced, leading in robotics, automobile production and manufacturing Africa-Due to years of setback politically and economically, the technological industry lacks, with some countries very developed and some extremely undeveloped Middle East-still traditionally undeveloped with the bare minimum when it comes to industrialization and infrastructure. Europe-scientists and engineers initiated inventions which were then exported and perfected in other parts of the world Oceania-posessaverage war technology (though mostly peaceful). Used for nuclear testing throughout 20th century, and focuses on marine technology today

  36. Economic Developments Alex Thomson AshlynWrobleski Christian Varughese Caitlin Tabilog

  37. Before 600 BCE • Africa- Agrarian nomadic tribes; pastoralism; metallurgy • Asia- Not much trade, self-sufficient, China isolationist. Silk+rice major cash crops; pastoralism • Europe- Cultivation of cash crops, grains and pulses • Middle East- Nomads moved, cultivated, and traded with weather patterns; droughts forced locals to barter for food • Oceania- Trade contact with East Asia and Indian Ocean • The Americas- Maize an important cash crop; trading of potatoes+protein-rich grains

  38. 600 BCE-600 CE • Africa- Egypt dominated economy, craftsmen skilled in metalworking highly valued; copper an important resource • Asia- Xiongnu herders produced valuable artwork for sale; Han wanted to appease them, produced gifts of rice and silk • Europe- Celts spread metallurgical skills, valuable artifacts; due to tribal lifestyle, trade between different groups occurred often (potatoes) • Middle East- Neo-Assyrian Empire exploited wealth of subjects; Phoenican exports contributed greatly to dye industry • Oceania- Continued interaction between East Asia and countries (islands) of the Indian Ocean • The Americas- Llamas used for transportation of goods and people, Chavin trade created network of people throughout Peru

  39. 600 CE- 1450 • Africa- Increased contact between tribes; establishment of small tribal conglomerates/civilizations increased commerce • Asia- With rise of Mongols, Yuan Empire elevated status of merchants; commoners took many such positions • Europe- Manorial system of serfs bound to the land of the lord of the manor; feudalism • Oceania- Dhows in Philippines, New Zealand, etc. involved in trade of luxury goods • The Americas- Aztecs imposed tribute system, forced conquered peoples to pay taxes of goods and labor; other empires emulated this system

  40. 1450-1750 • Africa- Slave trade blossomed, European colonies demanded increased labor of locals for manpower and raw materials like ivory, gold, etc. • Asia- Collapse of Mongol rule lead to collapse of overland trade routes (Silk Road); high tariffs along these routes led to increased dependence on maritime trade • Europe- Colonization of the Americas, the Columbian Exchange led to the introduction of important crops like potatoes • Middle East- Establishment of paper money in Mongol Il-Khan Empire; flourishing of Islamic culture+architecture led to higher employment rate of craftsmen/artisans • Oceania- Indian Ocean trade blossomed; European colonization led to establishment of joint-stock companies and increase of commerce • The Americas- System of indentured servitude grew in colonies

  41. 1750-1900 • Africa- Emphasis on cotton production; Ethiopia grew strong by manufacturing weapons; commercial ties grew between Africa and Europe • Asia- Negotiated with British East India Company; tea an important commodity • Europe- New machines allowed mass production; mechanization spread • Middle East- Slow to industrialize compared with Western empires, decline of Ottoman Empire leads to establishment of new Turkish nation by Young Turks • Oceania- New Zealand colonized by England, used for production of raw materials like rubber • The Americas- Labor unions faced problems in factories; long hours and poor conditions led to numerous strikes

  42. 1900-Present • Africa- Mining provided jobs/wages; negotiated with Europeans for trade of legitimate resources • Asia- Though at first hesitant to westernize, China industrialized to have one of the highest GDPs in the world • Europe- Fiasco of WWI caused unemployment to vanish; Treaty of Versailles all but destroyed German economy; Common Market promoted economic union • Middle East- Though westernization was rejected, economy thrived due to oil industry • Oceania- Independence of Fiji, Tonga and other islands in late 1900s resulted in economic reforms; streamlining of commerce • The Americas- Latin America struggled to become economically independent, eventually succeeded; United States industry boosted by wars, eventually became world power

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