THE AGE OF EXPLORATION15TH AND 16TH CENTURY AN OVERVIEW
BACKGROUND- 15TH CENTURY • RISE OF NATIONALISM AMONG THE NEW NATION-STATES OF EUROPE • EMERGENCE OF POWERFUL NEW NATION-STATES WITH ASSERTIVE MONARCHS • INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS • EXPANSION OF TRADE AND BUSINESS ACTIVITY • RENAISSANCE QUEST FOR KNOWLEDGE • Crusades
MOTIVATING FACTORS FOR EUROPEAN EXPANSION • DESIRE TO ENHANCE NATIONAL PRESTIGE (NATIONALISM) • NATIONAL WEALTH AND TERRITORY • PRESTIGE FOR MONARCHS • POSSIBILITY OF PERSONAL WEALTH, FAME, AND SOCIAL PRESTIGE • QUEST FOR NEW GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE • DESIRE TO SPREAD CHRISTIANITY • INTENSIFYING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION AMONG THE POWERFUL NATION-STATES OF EUROPE • DESIRE TO FIND NEW TRADE ROUTES TO THE EAST – INCREASE PROFITS
NEW TECHNOLOGIES THAT IMPACTED EXPLORATION • BETTER AND FASTER SHIP DESIGN • PRINTING PRESS • MORE RELIABLE MAGNETIC COMPASS • THE INVENTION OF THE CLOCK • ALLOWED FOR NEW NAVIGATIONAL METHODS- EVENTUALLY LONGITUDE • ASTROLABE- LATITUDE NAVIGATION • MORE ACCURATE MAPS • GUN POWDER AND NEW WEAPONS • CANNONS AND MUSKETS
PORTUGAL WEST AFRICA PARTS OF ASIA SOUTH AMERICA (Brazil) MAJOR EMPHASIS WAS ON TRADE GOLD SLAVE TRADE-WEST AFRICA NEW PRODUCTS AND SPICES
National policies strongly supported exploration and trade Portugal had a long tradition of navigation and trade Sets up trading ports called factories Sets up school for navigators PRINCE HENRY THE NAVIGATOR OF PORTUGAL
Portuguese Explorers • Bartolomeu Dias rounds the Cape of Good Hope. • Vasco de Gama reaches India and returns with a ship full of goods.
Spain • Envious of Portugal's success, Christopher Columbus convinces the King and Queen to commission a trip west to find a better trade route to India. • Tensions between Spain and Portugal grow.
LINE OF DEMARCATION Portugal Spain Treaty of Tordesillas
The Dutch & English • Own the largest fleet in the world. 20,000 vessels • Dutch East India company develop a stronger. • Elizabeth I, established the English East India Company in a attempt to drive the Dutch out.
Confucian culture • modern concept of political nation state • Chinese defined by Confucian culture • civil service exam (605-1905) • social mobility • reward diligence, discipline, and willpower, but not talent or innovation • law of avoidance
China Limits European Contacts The Rise of the Ming • Hongwu—peasant’s son who leads army that forces Mongols from China • First Ming emperor, he begins agricultural and government reforms • His son, Yonglo, becomes next emperor; moves royal court to Beijing • In 1405, he launches first of voyages of exploration
China Under the Powerful Ming Dynasty The Voyages of Zheng He • Chinese admiral Zheng He leads seven long voyages • Distributes gifts to show China’s superiority Ming Relations with Foreign Countries • In 1500s, Chinese government controls all contact with outsiders • Government policies favor farming over manufacturing and merchants • Christian missionaries bring European ideas to China
Zheng He’s fleet (1405 - 1433) • Over 300 ships & 20,000 men • trade and commerce • Southeast Asia, South Asia, West Asia, and East Africa
Zhou Man • He was born into a wealthy merchant family in the year 1378 • when he was six years old, his father died on an overseas voyage to Korea • explored wide reaches of the Indian Ocean • mapped the Pacific coast of North America
Japan Returns to Isolation A New Feudalism Under Strong Leaders Local Lords Rule • In 1467, civil war destroys old feudal system in Japan • Period from 1467 to 1568 is called time of the “Warring States” • Daimyo—warrior-chieftains—are lords in new feudal system • Emperor is figurehead with no real power • Daimyo build armies of mounted samurai and gun- bearing infantry
Japanese Explorers • Tanaka Shosuke • important Japanese technician and trader in metals from Kyoto • He is the first recorded Japanese to have travelled to the Americas in 1610 • helped establish trade and diplomatic relations between Japan and the Spanish Empire
Japanese Explorers • Naomi Uemura • He was particularly well known for doing alone what had previously been achieved only with large teams. • For example, he was the first person ever to reach the North Pole solo • the first ever to raft the Amazon solo • and the first ever to climb Mount Mckinley solo.
Japanese Explorers • Yamada Nagamasa • adventurer who gained considerable influence in Thailand • helped Japan develop relationships with Siam
Contact Between Europe and Japan Portugal Sends Ships, Merchants, and Technology to Japan • In 1540s, European traders begin arriving; welcomed by Japanese • European firearms change Japanese way of fighting Christian Missionaries in Japan • In 1549, first Christian missionaries arrive • By 1600, about 300,000 Japanese are Christians • Japan’s rulers upset by this, ban Christianity • After 1637 rebellion, Christianity is forbidden in Japan NEXT
The Atlantic World, 1492–1800 Europeans explore and colonize the Americas, disrupting native civilizations, and build the slave trade to support plantations in the New World. Christopher Columbus, Spanish explorer, as young man. NEXT
Spain Builds an American Empire The Voyages of Columbus First Encounters • Sea captainChristopher Columbus reaches Americas (1492) • Thinks he is in East Indies, calls natives “los indios”—Indians • Unable to find gold, he claims many islands for Spain • In 1493, he sets out for the Americas again with a large fleet • Spain aims to set up colonies—lands controlled by a foreign nation
The Voyages of Columbus Other Explorers Take to the Seas • Pedro Álvares Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal (1500) • Amerigo Vespucci identifies South America as new continent (1501) • In 1507, German mapmaker names the continent America • Vasco Núñez de Balboa reaches the Pacific Ocean • Ferdinand Magellan leaves to sail around the world (1519) • Magellan is killed, but some of his men return to Spain in 1522
CROSSING THE ISTHMUS OF PANAMA First European to reach Pacific from New World Colonizes the island of Hispaniola BALBOA
MAGELLAN DID NOT SURVIVE THE VOYAGE OF THE 270 MEN WHO BEGAN THE VOYAGE AROUND THE GLOBE, ONLY 18 FINISHED THE AND RETURNED TO SPAIN MAGELLAN-PORTUGUESE
Spanish Conquests in Mexico Conquistadors • In 1519, Hernando Cortés—Spanish adventurer— lands in Mexico • He and others become known as conquistadors—Spanish conquerors Cortés Conquers the Aztecs • Cortés and 600 men reach Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán • By 1521, they conquer Aztec empire • Conquest aided by superior weapons, Native American allies • European diseases wipe out large numbers of Aztecs
Spanish Conquests in Peru Another Conquistador • Spanish conquerorFrancisco Pizarro leads force to Peru in 1532 Spain’s Pattern of Conquest • Spanish men and Native American women have children • Result is large mestizo—mixed Spanish and native— population • Encomiendasystem—Spanish force Native Americans to work for them The Portuguese in Brazil In 1530s, Portuguese settle in Brazil, begin growing sugar
ENCOMIENDATRIBUTE LABOR SYSTEM – NATIVE PEOPLES WERE REQUIRED TO GIVE LABOR TO THE EUROPEAN SETTLERS