BASIC FACTS • United States of America=Union, aka The North; President is Lincoln • Confederate States of America= Confederacy, aka The South; President is Jefferson Davis
1860—Lincoln is elected PresidentBy February 1861, 7 states leave the Union
The War Begins… • April 1861—Lincoln tries to resupply Union troops at Fort Sumter in the harbor at Charleston, SC • Confederates bomb the fort • FOUR more states leave the Union The bombardment of Fort Sumter
4 slave states stayed with the Union1 new state got created (West Virginia)
Northern Advantages • Population: 22 million vs. South’s 9 million • Economic advantage: 85% of U.S. industry • Railroads: 20,000 miles of track vs. 9000 miles • Control ofU.S.Navy: used the Anaconda Plan to blockade the South
Southern Advantages • defensivewar • excellent military leadership
Robert E. Lee • Served in the Mexican War. • Lincoln asked him to lead the Union Army but he said no. • Opposedsecession and slavery but said he could not fight against his home state of Virginia. Commander of the Confederate Army
Battle of Bull Run / Manassas The first major battle of the Civil War, July 1861
BULL RUN • Confederate victory • North was shamed; realized the fight would be long • South got overconfident
Fighting Conditions • Lack of supplies • Disease, malnutrition and infection took the lives of over 65% of the soldiers A Union doctor gets ready to amputate a soldiers leg. Amputations were a very common procedure during the war.
FIVE OBJECTIVES OF UNION STRATEGY • Blockade the coast • Liberate slaves/undermine economy of the South • Cut Confederacy in half by seizing Mississippi River • Chop the Confederacy to pieces by sending troops through Georgia and the Carolinas • Capture Richmond, the Confederate capital
Antietam • Confederate soldier dropped battle plans wrapped around a cigar pack • Union “victory” and turning point in the war • Hopes of European aid for the South dim • Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation • Effective January 1, 1863 • Freed slaves in areas rebelling against the Union (NOT those in border states) • Mixed reactions
Chancellorsville, VA—May 1863 • The Confederacy wins with a surprise attack from behind Union forces • But Stonewall Jackson was mistakenly shot late in the day by his own men and died days later.
Jackson is buried in Lexington, KY, but his arm is buried 100 miles away where it was amputated.
Gettysburg • Lee tries to invade the North • Lee’s army was short on supplies, and the North is where they would be able to raid towns for food, clothes and other necessities. • He hopes that Northern public support would drop and bring about an end to the War.
75,000 Confederates in Pennsylvania! • The first shots are fired by Illinois Cavalry when a Southern raiding party was discovered coming into Gettysburg looking for shoes. • This was the only major battle fought in the North
Day 3: Pickett’s Charge • On the 3rd day of the battle, Lee orders 15,000 men under Gen. George Pickett to assault the center of the Union line. They must cross a half mile of open ground to get there.
Casualties after 3 days at Gettysburg – Union: 23,000; Confederacy: 28,000. Gettysburg permanently turned the tide of the war for the North. From that point on Lee’s army was hurting.
Matthew Brady’s photos of Civil War battlefields presented the horrors of the war to the public in a way they had never seen before.