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Levels of Support/ Levels of Prompting

Levels of Support/ Levels of Prompting

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Levels of Support/ Levels of Prompting

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  1. Levels of Support/Levels of Prompting Paraeducator Training Series AIU 3 adapted from Lifelines, LRConsulting, Katy, TX

  2. Local Policy Your local school district, IU, preschool or employing agency’s policies regarding paraeducator job descriptions, duties, and responsibilities provide the final word!

  3. Agenda • Define “student independence” • Share strategies to build independence • The Natural Cycle of Behavior: Case scenarios

  4. Learner Outcomes Participants will: • Identify instructional concepts (cues/prompts, modeling, shaping, wait time, use of reinforcers, and fading of support). • Apply these instructional concepts to scenarios as strategies to teach independence. • Apply strategies to instruction.

  5. Student Independence What is it? Why build it? What does it look like? What is my role in building student independence?

  6. Our Goal… • Our goal as paraeducators is to help students with disabilities become as independent as possible throughout the school, home, and community.

  7. Student Independence What is it? • Freedom from the influence or control of others • Completing a task without undo assistance • Using resources to meet your personal needs • Self-help (a.k.a. Self-advocating) • Making appropriate choices and decisions • Being able to say, “I can do it myself!”

  8. Student Independence What is it? • Students… “need a supportive environment to function successfully in school—and later in the workplace. A supportive environment enables them to capitalize on their strengths and minimize or cope effectively with their weaknesses” (Larkin, 2001)

  9. Student Independence What is it? • Builds self-esteem • Motivates a student to achieve • Gives student a sense of purpose • Social acceptance • Reduces stereotypic labels • Allows teachers to focus on instruction

  10. Student Independence What does it look like? • Use of a planner to write down assignments • Use of magnification software to read a text • Using a joystick to manipulate a computer • Use of pictures to guide task completion • Use of an orthopedic device for walking • Taking the elevator rather than the stairs • Tying ones own shoes

  11. Student Independence What is my role in building student independence? • Build your knowledge about strategies • Help only when they cannot do it themselves • Teach independence • Offer support, as needed • Build independence throughout the day

  12. Scaffolding Instruction

  13. Scaffolding Instruction Defined “Scaffolded instruction is the “systematic sequencing of prompted content, materials, tasks, and teacher and peer support to optimize learning.” (Dickson, Chard, & Simmons, 1993, p. 12)

  14. Scaffolding Instruction Essential Features • Interaction takes place in a collaborative environment and honors the child’s intentions • Expectations are developmentally appropriate • Support is gradually withdrawn as skills are gained • The child internalizes the knowledge and becomes independent

  15. Scaffolding Instruction Guidelines for Implementation • Identify what the student already knows • Begin with what the student CAN do • Help students achieve success quickly • Help students to “be” like everyone else • Know when it’s time to stop • Help students be independent when they have command of the activity

  16. Our Goal… • Our goal as paraeducators is to help students with disabilities become as independent as possible throughout the school, home, and community.

  17. Strategies to Build Independence Cues/Prompts Modeling Shaping Wait Time Fading Reinforcers

  18. Strategies to build independence Cues/Prompts • Verbal or nonverbal signals that indicate what action is necessary Example: “Do you remember the 9/10 strategy we learned yesterday?”

  19. Strategies to build independence Modeling • To demonstrate a behavior or completion of a task for the learner Example: 25 50 75 $1.00

  20. Strategies to build independence Shaping • To teach a behavior or task by providing cues, models, and consequences for steps demonstrated gradually until the final behavior or task is learned Example: Wider-lined paper Narrower-lined paper

  21. Strategies to build independence Wait Time • The amount of time given to the student to respond to a question or complete a task Example: Question (wait 20 seconds) No response? Rephrase the question.

  22. Strategies to build independence Fading • A gradual reduction of cues/prompts and extrinsic (outside) reinforcers as the student demonstrates desired behavior or task

  23. Example

  24. Strategies to build independence Reinforcers • Any action or event that increases the likelihood that a behavior will occur • Positive Reinforcer Adding something desirable Example: “You have earned extra free time!” • Negative Reinforcer Taking away an aversive Example: “You only have to finish the first half of the worksheet”

  25. Strategies to build independence Reinforcers • Reinforcers that occur naturally Example: David follows directions to silently read a story. He participates in class discussion. When the next story is assigned, David eagerly opens his book and reads.

  26. Strategies to build independence Reinforcers • Reinforcers that are contrived (not naturally occurring) and are intentionally provided to increase the behavior or to ensure task completion Example: Accelerated Reader Videogames (Score!) Popcorn Party for good behavior

  27. Making Connections to the Classroom ACTIVITY

  28. Making Connections to the Classroom Activity Directions: With a partner, read the scenarios and determine which type of support has been offered to the student. Check the column of the appropriate strategy. I will model one for you!

  29. Making Connections to the Classroom Activity: I do! Math is scheduled after language. Lisa has finished her language arts assignments and is sitting at her desk. The paraeducator points to a schedule taped to Lisa’s desk to indicate that it is 10:00 and time for math. Lisa takes out her math book, waiting for the teacher to begin the math lesson.

  30. Making Connections to the Classroom Activity: We do! While accompanying the class to McDonald’s, Lisa selects the items to order, places her order, pays and checks her change. The clerk smiles and thanks her for eating at McDonald’s. Lisa joins the paraeducator and other class members to eat her lunch. Lisa is excited about the possibility of coming back to McDonald’s again.

  31. Making Connections to the Classroom Activity: We do! While accompanying the class to McDonald’s, Lisa selects the items to order, places her order, pays and checks her change. The clerk smiles and thanks her for eating at McDonald’s. Lisa joins the paraeducator and other class members to eat her lunch. Lisa is excited about the possibility of coming back to McDonald’s again.

  32. Making Connections to the Classroom Activity: You do! Complete the following 5 scenarios with your partner and check the column showing the strategy used.

  33. The Natural Cycle of Behavior Case Scenarios

  34. The Natural Cycle of Behavior • Natural or Imposed Cue • Behavior or Action • Reinforcer • Independence

  35. The Natural Cycle of Behavior Natural or Imposed Cue: Strategy for Independence Expected Behavior: Does the Student perform the skill correctly? No Reinforcer Student connecting the natural or imposed cue, behavior, and reinforcer? No Student demonstrates behavior independently 1998 LRConsulting

  36. Strategies to build independence • The Natural Cue -- It’s raining outside

  37. Strategies to build independence • The Imposed Cue • Questions • Options • Auditory Cue • Visual Cue • Tactile Cue

  38. The Natural Cycle of Behavior Natural Cue: It’s Raining Outside Cues/Prompts Draw attention to the natural cues/prompts in some way. Ask a question about necessary action. Give an option. Tell the student what action to take. Physically guide the student through the process. Student will take an umbrella when going outside. Does the student perform the skill correctly? No Reinforcer: Student Stays Dry Student connecting the natural cue, behavior, and intrinsic reinforcer? No Student demonstrates behavior independently 1998 LRConsulting

  39. The Natural Cycle of Behavior Natural Cue: It’s Raining Outside Modeling Point out someone who is doing the behavior correctly. Demonstrate the action that needs to be taken. Student will take an umbrella when going outside. Does the Student perform the skill correctly? No Reinforcer: Student Stays Dry Student connecting the natural cue, behavior, and reinforcer? No Student demonstrates behavior independently

  40. The Natural Cycle of Behavior Natural Cue: It’s Raining Outside Shaping Break the task/behavior into smaller steps Model steps Have student complete initial or final step Gradually add steps for student to complete Student will take an umbrella when going outside. Does the Student perform the skill correctly? No Reinforcer: Student Stays Dry Student connecting the natural cue, behavior, and reinforcer? No Student demonstrates behavior independently

  41. The Natural Cycle of Behavior Natural Cue: It’s Raining Outside Wait Time After questioning/modeling, paraeducator allows adequate time for the student to respond. Student will take an umbrella when going outside. Does the Student perform the skill correctly? No Reinforcer: Student Stays Dry Student connecting the natural cue, behavior, and reinforcer? No Student demonstrates behavior independently

  42. Instrinsic & Extrinsic Reinforcers • Draw attention to the natural consequences of performing the behavior • Ask a question about what natural consequences resulted from performing the behavior • Connect the behavior to a reinforcer

  43. The Natural Cycle of Behavior ACTIVITY

  44. The Natural Cycle of Behavior Natural Cue: It’s 10:00 – Math Time Cues/Prompts Draw attention to the natural cues/prompts in some way. Ask a question about necessary action. Give an option. Tell the student what action to take. Physically guide the student through the process. Student will take out math book and prepare for the lesson Does the Student perform the skill correctly? No Reinforcer: Student participates in math lesson Student connecting the natural cue, behavior, and reinforcer? No Student demonstrates behavior independently

  45. The Natural Cycle of Behavior Natural Cue: It’s 10:00 – Math Time Student will take out math book and prepare for the lesson Modeling Point out someone who is doing the behavior correctly. Demonstrate the action that needs to be taken. Does the Student perform the skill correctly? No Reinforcer: Student participates in math lesson Student connecting the natural cue, behavior, and reinforcer? No Student demonstrates behavior independently

  46. The Natural Cycle of Behavior Natural Cue: It’s 10:00 – Math Time Shaping Break the task/behavior into smaller steps Model steps Have student complete initial or final step Gradually add steps for student to complete Student will take out math book and prepare for the lesson Does the Student perform the skill correctly? No Reinforcer: Student participates in math lesson Student connecting the natural cue, behavior, and reinforcer? No Student demonstrates behavior independently

  47. The Natural Cycle of Behavior Natural Cue: It’s 10:00 – Math Time Student will take out math book and prepare for the lesson Wait Time After questioning/modeling, paraeducator allows adequate time for the student to respond. Does the Student perform the skill correctly? No Reinforcer: Student participates in math lesson Student connecting the natural cue, behavior, and reinforcer? No Student demonstrates behavior independently

  48. The Natural Cycle of Behavior Natural Cue: It’s 10:00 – Math Time Intrinsic Reinforcers Draw attention to the natural consequences of performing the behavior Ask a question about what natural consequences resulted from performing the behavior Connect the behavior to a reinforcer Student will take out math book and prepare for the lesson Does the Student perform the skill correctly? No Reinforcer: Student participates in math lesson Student connecting the natural cue, behavior, and reinforcer? No Student demonstrates behavior independently

  49. Case Scenarios Works for Me! • Think of a student with whom you work • Think of a time in the day that is a challenge due to lack of independence in the student • Consider the “Natural Cycle of Behavior” and determine how you can build student independence • Consider which strategy you will use • Complete the blank form based on your case scenario

  50. Case Scenarios Works for Me! With a partner, share a way in which you could use the information learned today… Consider: The Strategies for Independence The Natural Cycle of Behavior Scaffolding your level of support