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Financial Statements

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  1. Financial Statements Business Management

  2. Today’s Objectives • Interpret basic financial statements, including cash flow, income statement, and a balance sheet. • Prepare a budget to include short-term and long-term expenditures.

  3. Essential Questions • What is the purpose of each financial statement: income statement, cash flow, and balance sheet? • Which figures are included on each financial statement? • Explain the significance of the break-even point as it relates to finances. • What is the financial equation and how does it relate to the balance sheet?

  4. Financial Statements • Income Statement • Cash Flow Statement • Balance Sheet

  5. The Income Statement • Prepared at the end of each month • Tracks income and expenses • Also called a profit and loss statement Purpose of an Income Statement

  6. Preparing the Income Statement • Sales – how much money the company will be receiving for selling a product • Total Cost of Goods Sold – the cost of making one unit multiplied by the number of units sold • Gross Profit = sales – cost of goods sold • Operating Costs – items that must be paid to operate a business including fixed costs and variable costs (USAIIR) Figures Included on an Income Statement

  7. Preparing the Income Statement • Profit Before Taxes – profit before taxes but after ALL other costs have been paid • Taxes – payments required by federal, state, and local governments based on a business’s profit (sales tax, income tax) • Net Profit or Net Loss – a business’s profit or loss after taxes are paid Figures Included on an Income Statement

  8. Example of an Income Statement

  9. Depreciation • If you buy expensive, long-lasting assets, you will want to include depreciation in your income statement (fixed cost). • Depreciation is when a certain portion of the cost of an asset is subtracted each year until the asset’s value reaches zero.

  10. Calculating Depreciation • Hometown Restaurant buys $3,000 worth of tables and chairs that will last approximately 5 years before needing to be replaced. • The income statement shows that $600 is subtracted each year to “save” for the new tables & chairs to be purchased in the future.

  11. Financial Ratio Analysis • Entrepreneurs don’t just look at their income statements… they analyze them by dividing sales into each line item. • Each item can then be expressed as a percentage of sales. • Relating each piece of the income statement to sales will help you notice changes in costs from month to month. Figures Included on an Income Statement

  12. Example

  13. Summarizing theIncome Statement • Purposetrack monthly income & expenses • Includestotal of seven (7) figures plus ratios • Also accounts for depreciation, which is an estimated or projected figure

  14. The Break-Even Analysis • When sales and costs are equal, the total at the bottom of the income statement is zero. • This condition is called the break-even point. • Many new businesses lose money in the beginning, but a business must at least break even to survive. • Businesses must know how many units to sell during a month to cover costs and break even. Significance of Break-Even point

  15. Determining the Break-Even Point • Define your unit of sale. • Figure your gross profit per unit. [ Selling Price per Unit – Cost of Goods Sold per Unit = Gross Profit per Unit ] • Calculate break-even units. • Typically calculated assuming all operating costs are fixed. [ Monthly Fixed Costs ÷ Gross Profit per Unit = Break-Even Units ] Significance of Break Even Point

  16. The Cash Flow Statement • Records inflows and outflows of cash when they actually occur • Takes out sales on credit and depreciation so that business owners can see how much money actually flowed in/out in a month • All sources of cash that come into the business with actual dates they are received (receipts) • Cash outflows that must be made within the month (disbursements) • Net change in cash flow before and after taxes Purpose of & Figures Included on a Cash Flow Statement

  17. The Balance Sheet • Prepared at the end of the business’s fiscal year • Usually October 1 to September 30 • Based on the Financial Equation • Assets – all items of worth owned by the business • Liabilities – all debts owed by the business • Owner’s Equity – also called capital or net worth; amount left over after liabilities are subtracted from assets Purpose of & Figures Included on a Balance Sheet

  18. The Financial Equation Assets – Liabilities = Owner’s Equity

  19. Example of a Balance Sheet

  20. Closing Task • Describe an income statement – what is its purpose and what is included? • Describe a cash flow statement – what is its purpose and what is included? • Describe the balance sheet – what is its purpose and what is included? • Write the financial equation. How does it relate to the balance sheet? • Why should business owners complete a Break-Even Analysis?

  21. Understanding a Balance Sheet Activity

  22. Understanding a Balance Sheet Activity Liabilities • Accts Pay. – Topline Owner’s Equity • Owner’s Capital • Expense? • Investment? • Revenue? • Withdrawal? Assets • Cash • Accts Rec. – Dean Mills • Supplies • Insurance