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AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE

AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE

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AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE

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  1. AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE See AL p.241-249, CC p.286-

  2. Activity 1 AL p.241

  3. Definitions: • Aggression: behaviour in which the goal is to dominateorharmanotherindividual. • Baron (1977): Aggression • The aggressormusthave an intention to harm the victim • The victimmustbeanotherlivingthing • The victimmustbemotivated to avoidsuchtreatment • Violence: an aggressive act in which the actororperpetratorabusesindividualsdirectlyorindirectly.  e.g. verbal, physical, psychological  byindividuals, groups, institutions, nations

  4. Violence: biologicallevel of analysis • Testosterone • Related to dominance, status seeking • Has a permissive effect • Serotonin • Low levels  irritability and aggression • Can be affected by extreme environments, e.g. childhood physical abuse results in fewer serotonin receptor sites  less serotonin activity in the brain

  5. Frontal-lobe abnormalities • Grafman et al. (1996): • Study of Vietnam veterans: 57 controls, 279 suffering from head injuries (matched for age, education and time in Vietnam) • Family observations, self-reports (scales, questionnaires) • Results: frontal-lobe lesions consistently demonstrated Violence Scale scores significantly higher than the controls

  6. Raine et al. (1997): Study of murderers ”notquiltybyreason of insanity” • Method: PET (positron emission tomography) • Results: • loweractivity in the prefrontalcortex and corpuscallosum •  problem in integrating the information to modifybehaviour and controlimpulses • asymmetry in amygdala and in the medialtemporallobe (incl. e.g. hippocampus),  Problem in forming and usingemotionallyladenperceptions and memories • increasedright-hemisphereactivity Raine: violence is notdeterminedbybiologyalone…

  7. Studies related to the biological basis of bullying 1) The effect of genes: • Eley et al. (1999): • identical twins show more likely aggressive behaviour • Antisocial behaviour in girls more likely genetically based 2) The effect of malnutrition: • Lieu and Raine (2004): • Longitudinal study (over 14 years) • 1000 children in Mauritius • Malnutrition in the first years of life may be responsible for antisocial and aggressive behaviour later

  8. Kauhajoki school shooting • http://www.google.fi/search?q=kauhajoki+shooting&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:fi:official&client=firefox-a How can this kind of violence be explained?

  9. Violence: the cognitivelevel of analysis • Previousexperiences biasedcognitiveprocessing  violence • Bradshaw: Exposure to violence in childhood  biased social informationprocessing • Social cognitiveprocessing = social cognitionmaybeaffectedbyriskfactorsrelated to: A. General knowledgestructures(cognitiveschemas) • Innerworkingmodels(Bowlby): whatpeopleexpectfromothers and the emotionslinked to this  attachment) • Self-schemas • Social schemas B. Informationprocessing • Interpretation of social situations, e.g. attributions

  10. Abuse, social rejection, violenceby the peers risk for developingantisocialbehaviourbased on the effect on A. and B. Bradshaw: • Studybased on self-reports • positivecorrelationbetweennegativeview of others and • Hostileattributionbias • Aggressiveresponsereaction • Justification of aggression • No correlationbetweenview of self and aggression

  11. Baumeister et al.(1996): Negative self-schemas  aggressive behaviour • Baumeister and Bushman (1998): those with inflated, tenuous or unstable forms of high self-esteem (egotism  narcism) are more likely to act aggressively than those with poor self-esteem • See study CC p.291

  12. Brain injury  frustration  aggression • Anger management training: identifying trigger situations  reduction of the level of arousal, alternative solution to the problem  Cognitive therapy • Gerbner et al (1994) the effect of media violence  children develop scripts that problems can be solved through violence

  13. Merrill (1996): learning to resort to violence comes from three factors: • Direct instructions by others • Modelling of violent or controlling behaviour • Rewards for threatening, controlling or abusive behaviour

  14. Cognitive factors affecting bullying: • Social schemas are affected by violence in childhood • Difficulties in interpreting the intentions of their classmates • Negative attitudes towards others + negative attributioning  Bias in information processing due to negatively based cognitive schemas

  15. Violence: socioculturallevel of analysis • Vygotsky (1930s): violence is the result of power differences between different social groups • Social norms • Dictate how power is distributed • How emotions may be expressed • Learned through modelling • Social learning theory

  16. Deindividuation theory • A crowd provides anonymity  no responsibility • Zimbardo 1969 (CC p.292): female undergraduates  deindividuated gave twice as many shocks as individuated • Diener et al 1979 (CC p.293): naturalistic observation of children on Halloween • Reicher (1987): deindividuation increases an individual’s sense of group identity • Reicher: the social identity of the group provides indications as to what is and is not acceptable

  17. Johnson and Downing (1979): in Ku Klux Klan outfit stronger shocks than in nurse’s outfit  the effect of group identity and its social norms • Marsh 1978 (AL p.246) • Gergen et al. 1973 (AL p. 246)

  18. Self-categorization theory (Oakes et al.1993) : people look for other individuals in the group with whom they can identify • Emergent-norm theory (Turner and Killian 1973, see AL p.246)

  19. Socio-cultural factors affecting bullying: • Bullying is found in many countries (see CC p.294) • Girls use more indirect ways to bully • Eron (1987): parents of bullies are often autoritarian, using very strict, and often physical, methods of punishment • Olweus: bullying is a complex phenomenon where many people play a role  the bullying circle (see CC p.295) • New form of bullying: cyber-bullying • Anonymity • No punishment • Lack of feedback from the victim

  20. Groupwork on aggression

  21. http://jonathan.mueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/crow/topicaggression.htmhttp://jonathan.mueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/crow/topicaggression.htm Go to the page and choose ONE TOPIC related to aggression • Move to the pagesrelated to thattopic • Each of youreads 1-3 articlesrelated to yourtopic • Eachonemakes a referate of the interestingfacts (studies, theories etc.) foundrelated to the topic • Add a new folder to FRONTER (IB PS 1). Name the folderaccording to the topic of yourgroup and includeall the referates as separatedocuments to thatfolder. • Eachgroupintroducesitstopic and findingsnextMonday