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GEO/ENV 315/GEO 514 Hydrogeology PowerPoint Presentation
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GEO/ENV 315/GEO 514 Hydrogeology

GEO/ENV 315/GEO 514 Hydrogeology

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GEO/ENV 315/GEO 514 Hydrogeology

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  1. GEO/ENV 315/GEO 514 Hydrogeology • Class meets: Time: Mondays: 5:30 pm – 8:30 pm. Location: ESS 183 • Office Hours: Wednesdays and Fridays 3:00 – 4:00 pm ESS 230 • Required textbook: Applied Hydrogeology (4th edition), C. W. Fetter Prentice Hall

  2. GEO/ENV 315/GEO 514 Hydrogeology • Instructor: Lianxing Wen email: Lianxing.Wen@sunysb.edu office: ESS 230 phone: 632-1726 fax: 632-8240

  3. Requirements and Grading • Geo/Env 315: attend lectures; 5 problem sets (60%), 2 examinations (20% each). • Geo 514: all above (80%) + a term paper (20%)

  4. Class website • Class website: http://geophysics.geo.sunysb.edu/wen/Geo315/

  5. Water Budget • Saline water • Land Area -- Ice caps and glaciers -- Ground water -- Soil Moisture -- Fresh water lakes -- Rivers -- Saline lakes

  6. Water Budget • Saline water 97.2% • Land Area 2.8% -- Ice caps and glaciers 2.14% -- Ground water 0.61% -- Soil Moisture 0.005% -- Fresh water lakes 0.009% -- Rivers 0.0001% -- Saline lakes 0.008%

  7. Water Budget (Cont.) • Atmosphere 0.001% • Atmosphere circulates rapidly -- 30 in. on Conterminous U.S. -- 22 in. are returned via evaporation and transpiration. -- 8 in. flows into oceans as rivers.

  8. Hydrologic Equation • Inflow = outflow +/- Changes in storage • Equation is simple statement of mass conservation

  9. Hydrologic inputs into area • Precipitation • Surface water inflow (streamflow + overland flow) • Ground water inflow from outside area • Artificial import (pipes + canals)

  10. Hydrologic outputs into area • Evapotranspiration from land areas • Evaporation from surface water • Runoff of surface water • Groundwater outflow • Artificial export of water through pipes and canals

  11. Changes in storage • Changes in volume of: -- surface water in streams, rivers, lakes, and ponds. -- soil moisture in vadose zone -- ice and snow at surface -- temperature depression storage -- water on plant surfaces -- ground water below water table

  12. Mono Lake • Inputs: precipitation; streams; ground water. • Outputs: evaporation; artificial streams.

  13. Hydrologic Cycle (Precipitation Pathways) • Depression Storage - ice, snow, puddles. • Overland flow • Infiltration -- Vadose zone – (soil moisture), interflow -- Gravity drainage -- Zone of saturation – (ground water) • Baseflow-ground-water contribution

  14. Hydrologic Cycle (Precipitation Pathways – cont.) • Baseflow – groundwater contribution to stream • Subsea outflow • Runoff – total flow in a stream • Magmatic water

  15. Energy Transformation • 1 Caloria of heat = energy necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of pure water from 14.5 – 15.5oC • Latent Heat of vaporization Hv = 597.3 – 0.564T (Cal./g) • Latent Heat of condensation

  16. Energy Transformation, Cont. • Latent heat of fusion – Hf – 1 g of ice at 0oC => ~80 cal of heat must be added to melt ice. Resulting water has same temperature. • Sublimation Water passes directly from a solid state to a vapor state. Energy = Hf + Hv => 677 cal/g at 0oC. • Hv > 6Hf > 5 x amt. to warm water from 0oC -> 100oC

  17. Aquifer • Properties: Porosity, specific yield, specific retention. • Potential: Transmissivity, storativity. • Types: confined, unconfined. • Hydraulic conductivity, Physical Laws controlling water transport.

  18. Ground-water flow to wells • Extract water • Remove contaminated water • Lower water table for constructions • Relieve pressures under dams • Injections – recharges • Control slat-water intrusion