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Visceral Nervous System

Visceral Nervous System

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Visceral Nervous System

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  1. Visceral Nervous System 内脏神经系

  2. The Visceral Nervous System Composition Visceral motor nerves (autonomic nervous system自主神经系统) Visceral sensory nerves • Sympathetic part 交感神经 • Parasympathetic part 副交感神经

  3. Visceral motor nerves 内脏运动神经

  4. postganglionic fiber preganglionic neuron preganglionic fiber postganglionic neuron

  5. The differences between somatic motor and visceral motor n.

  6. Sympathetic part交感部 • Lower center低级中枢located in lateral horn of gray mater of spinal cord in segments T1~L3 • The peripheral part of sympathatic part • Sympathetic ganglia交感神经节 Prevertebral ganglia • --椎旁节 • Paravertebral ganglia • --椎前节

  7. Paravertebral ganglia椎旁节 Position: Arranged on either side of vertebral column Number: Consist of 19~22 ganglia • cervical ganglia :3 • thoracic ganglia: 10~12 • lumbar ganglia: 4 • sacral ganglia: 2~3 • Coccygeal ganglion (Ganglion impar奇神经节)1 unpaired on the anterior face of coccyx

  8. Superior cervical ganglion Middle cervical ganglion inferior cervical ganglion

  9. Sympathetic trunk交感干 Formation: It is formed by paravertebral ganglia and interganglionic branches Position: • lie on either side of vertebral column from base of skull to coccyx • The trunks of two side unite at the ganglion impar in front of the coccyx

  10. Prevertebral ganglia 椎前节 • Lie anterior to vertebral column and near the arteries • Celiac ganglion腹腔神经节 • Aorticorenal ganglion 主动脉肾节 • Superior mesenteric ganglion肠系膜上神经节 • Inferior mesenteric ganglion 肠系膜下神经节

  11. The communicating branches交通支 White communicating branches白交通支 • preganglionic fibers • (myelinated) sent out by the • nurons of the lateral horn; • 15 pairs in number (T1—L3) Gray communicating branches 灰交通支 • postganglionic unmyelinated • fibers sent by the neurons of • paravertebral ganglia, • 31 pairs in number.

  12. preganglionic fibers节前纤维 • They pass to sympathatic trunk via white communicating branches and terminate in 3 ways: • Some fibers synapse with neurons in the corresponding paravertebral ganglion; • Some fibers pass up or down in sympathatic trunkbefore terminating in the paravertebral ganglion; • The others pass through the paravertebral ganglion and terminate in prevertebral ganglion via the splanchnic n.

  13. postganglionic fibers节后纤维 • They also terminate in 3 ways: • Some fibers pass through the gray communicating branches to spinal n. and to the peripheral blood vessels,sweat gland and arrectores pilorum;

  14. postganglionic fibers节后纤维 • surrounding the artery as a layer of nervous plexus to innervate the corresponding organs; • terminating directly in the certain organs

  15. The general distribution of sympathatic nerve • The cervical part of sympathatic trunk • The postganglionic fibers pass through the gray communicating branches to 8 cervical nerves and distribute the head, neck and upper limb(blood vessels, sweat gland and arrector pilorum); • The fibers surround the internal and external carotid arteries to innervate the glands of the head and neck, the dilator pupillae;

  16. The general distribution of sympathatic nerve • The cervical part of sympathatic trunk • Send out cardiac branches to heart (to form the cardiac plexus with cardiac branch of vagus n.) send out pharyngeal branch to the pharynx

  17. The thoracic part of sympathatic trunk • Greater splanchnic nerve 内脏大神经 formed by preganglionic fibers from T5~T9 ganglia, and relay in celiac ganglion. • Lesser splanchnic nerve • 内脏小神经 • formed by preganglionic fibers from T10~T12 ganglia, and relay in aorticorenal ganglion.

  18. The thoracic part of sympathatic trunk • The postganglionic fibers supply the liver, spleen, kidney and alimentary tract as far as the left colic flexure.

  19. Lumbar splanchnic nerve 腰内脏神经 Formed by preganglionic fibers from L1~L4 ganglia, and relay in prevertebral ganglia. • The postganglionic fibers supply descending and sigmoid colon, rectum, pelvic viscera and lower limbs.

  20. Distribution of sympathetic nerve

  21. Parasympathetic par副交感部 • Lower center 低级中枢: • four pairs parasympathetic nuclei in brain stem • in sacral parasympathetic nucleus of spinal cord in segments S2~S4

  22. Parasympathetic part 副交感部 Parasympathetic ganglia 副交感神经节: • terminal ganglia are near or within the wall of a visceral organ • Para-organ ganglia 器官旁节: • Ciliary ganglion睫状神经节 • Pterygopalatine ganglion 翼腭神经节 • Submandibular ganglion 下颌下神经节 • Otic ganglion耳神经节 • Intramural ganglia 壁内节

  23. Cranial portion 颅部 sphincter pupillae and ciliary mscles 〈 ○ 〈○ 〈○ ciliary ganglion accessory oculomotor nucleus Ⅲ pterygopalatine ganglion superior salivatory nucleus Ⅶ lacrimal gland submandibulargland Sublingual gland Submandibular ganglion

  24. Cranial portion 颅部 inferior salivatorynucleus Ⅸ parotid gland 〈○ otic ganglion heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys,alimen-tary tract asfar asleft colic flexure Ⅹ dorsal nucleus of vagus n 〈○ terminal ganglia

  25. Pelvic splanchnic n. Sacraln. Synapse with terminal ganglia Pelvic plexus Postganglionic fibers Sacral portion骶部 sacral parasympathetic nucleus S2-S4 supply the descending and sigmoid colon, rectum and pelvic viscera

  26. Main differences between sympathetic and parasympathetic

  27. Visceral plexuses • Cardiac plexuses心丛 - Superficial , below aortic arch - Deep, anterior to bifurcation on trachea • Pulmonary plexus肺丛 • Celiac plexus腹腔丛 • Abdominal aortic plexus 腹主动脉丛 • Hypogastric plexus腹下丛 Superior hypogastric plexus Inferior hypogastric plexus (pelvic plexus)

  28. Referred pain牵涉痛

  29. Thank you

  30. Ciliary ganglion

  31. Pterygopalatine ganglion Submandibular ganglion

  32. Otic ganglion

  33. Main differences between sympathetic and parasympathetic