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REPUBL C OF ALBANIA MINIST RY OF LABOUR , SOCIAL AFFAIRS AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES D epartment of Equal Opportunities Policies. Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania . Anna Xheka Head of Equal Opportunities Policies Departament. Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania .
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REPUBLC OF ALBANIA MINISTRY OF LABOUR, SOCIAL AFFAIRS AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES Department of Equal Opportunities Policies Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania Anna Xheka Head of Equal Opportunities Policies Departament
Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania • 1. Albanian legislation and policies on gender equality Albanian legislation is almost completed from the gender equality aspect. In its bases stand very important international documents such as Universal Declaration on Human Rights and other Conventions on Human Rights. • 1.1 Constitution. Article 18 of the Albanian Republic Constitution, sanctions the equality principle of citizens under which: men and women as law subjects, de jure have to be treated equally and as a consequence have equal obligations too. Even in some fields, women de jure enjoy the rights and privileges that run from her mother and woman status. Nondiscrimination gender principle is sanctioned in the article 18/2 of the Albanian Republic Constitution: “No one can be partially discriminated due to gender, race, religion,…..” Constitutional principles are settled in the Codes approved after the year 1995 too, and they contain provisions on the protection of women and human rights.
Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania • 1.2 International Aspect Ratification of international documents is of a great importance too. They are classified after the constitution and they have supremacy on the national laws that are contradictory with them, article 122/2 of the Constitution. International documents on women rights applied in Albania: • Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women CEDAW 1978, ratified by the Albanian Parliament in 1993. • Optional Protocol of CEDAW ratified by the Albanian Parliament with the Law No. 9052 date 17.4.2003 • Beijing Platform for Action 1995- The platform determines 12 specific fields, the signatory states are oriented to compile National Platforms and Strategies on women. • According to the Millennium Development Objectives, undersigned in the year 2000, member states are required “to support gender equality and strengthening of women”.
Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania • 1.3 Immediate Policies on Gender Equality In its policies, Albanian government consists to the international principle on women and human rights of the 2005 World Summit, where all UNO member states accepted that “women progress is the whole society progress” The governmental political will on gender equality is clearly formulated in the adoption of the important legal documents. • National Strategy on Gender Equality and Domestic Violence 2007-2010 approved by the Council of Ministers Decision 913 date.19.12.2007 • Law No. 9970 date. 24.07.2008 “On gender equality in society”.
Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania • 1.3.1 National Strategy on Gender Equality and Domestic Violence 2007-2010 Its goal was the inclusion of gender issues and domestic violence in the public policies, through the concrete action plans, to establish the bases of gender equality advancement and domestic violence minimization for the future, based in the international documents, recommendation and instruments, referring to the concrete conditions of Albania. Strategic objectives • 1- Strengthening of the legal and institutional protective mechanisms to ensure gender equality in Albania. • 2- Women strengthening, through the increasing of her participation in decision-making
Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania • 3- Economical strengthening of women, and the growth of opportunities in employment and professional qualifications • 4- Promotion of the equal access in education, for women and girls • 5- Social care • 6- Health care • 7- Elimination of gender discrimination in media • 8- Raising awareness against violence phenomenon, legal and administrative protection and support for individuals affected by domestic violence and for the abusers.
Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania • 1.3.2 Law “On Gender Equality in Society” • The greatest achievement on gender equality was made by the approval of Law “On gender equality in society” by the Albanian Parliament, on July 24th 2008, This law aims to end the direct and indirect discrimination in employment, education, health and many other fields, for the advancement of gender equality. • Law innovations: • 1- Usage of the new definitions such as gender based discrimination, gender mainstreaming, equal representation, etc. • 2- Building of new policy-maker, executive and protective structures. • 3- Prevision of the temporary extra measures in the policy and public decision-making, predicted in the form of neutral quota, not less then 30%; inclusion of extra measures in the education and employment field. • 4- Un-payable work. • 5- Liability of collecting gender statistics.
Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania Quota • One of the most important decisions of the Electoral Code is the inclusion of the quota of 30%. According to this sanction all the political parties are obliged to include this quota in the candidates list, otherwise it won’t be registered as an election subject.
Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania • 2. STATISTICS • 2.1 Calculator of the gender equality situation in Albania
Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania • 2.2 Gender Equality situation in the legislative jurisdiction None of female deputies comes from the rural areas.
Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania • 2.3 Gender Equality situation in the executive jurisdiction
Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania • 2.4 Gender Equality situation in the local jurisdiction structures
Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania • 2.5 Women participation in the Armed Forces – October 2008
Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania • 2.6. Employment and the professional training.
Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania • 2.7. Iniciativa private ne formatin statistikor The number of women included in private business is yet low (women managers of the private business were 21% in 1994, 16,8% in 1996 and 18% in 1997 17 % in 2005.) About 85 % belong to the businesses, and 15% to the rural areas.The main economic activity realized by women is: • Trade, wholesale and shops, • Services, (notary, lawyer, hairdresser, dentist,) Agro-business and industry, (mainly milk products, textile, printing houses, handicraft, sewing).
Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania • 3. Rural woman in the transition wheel • After the spontaneous urbanization process, migratory movements, immigration and other economical factors, Albania remains to be a rural place, with 60% of rural population.
Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania • 3.1 The main factors that impacted the situation in rural areas. • Economical difficulties • Educational level in the rural population • Lack of infrastructure in general and particularly of the social one • Cultural differences in the urban and rural life • Inner migration tendencies, especially of the girls to the cities (through the marriage) as a better possibility. • Emigration tendencies to live the rural life for a better one. • Divorce, • Neglect of elder people, and of those who need NE.
Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania • 3.2. Rural women and the implementation level of economical, political and social rights. The current position and women status in the rural areas depends on a variety of factors, such as cultural family elements, educational and cultural level indicators, traditional mentalities and many other problems facing our society. It’s of a great importance, the implementation in practice of women economical rights in the farmer family, possession rapports, access in land and farm production vehicles. Woman contribution in the agricultural economy and house keeping, is very important for the family welfare, incomes and for the facing of the rural life.
Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania • 3.3. Rural woman and statistical information There is a lack of official gender data bases for such important issues as: • Access to crediting programs and to financial institutions, • Rapport on self-employed women and director women of non agricultural activities, within the rural area, • The strain of un-payable work in the family and in the economy of a farmer family. From gender analyzes on the work in rural areas results that: Men have a key role in the decision-making processes such as: buying agricultural materials, preparation of land, transport, bargain of agricultural and farming products and management of family budget. Within the family economy, rural women most of the time engages in such processes as: milking, gardening, cooking, housekeeping and taking care of children
Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania • 3.4 Poverty level According to the data bases, the poverty rate in Albania is decreasing, but it still remains higher in the rural areas than in the urban ones. In the last LSMS surveys (2005), results that, 18.5% of Albanian people are pour. In rural areas it results to be 24.2%. Comparing to the year 2002 rural poverty rate is decreased (-18 %), and in urban areas (-38%). Referring to the absolute poverty rate (LSMS 2005), we may say that the percentage of rural women of 15 years and over, is two times higher (22%) than urban women of the same age (10%)
Gender issues and women empowerment in Albania Thank you! 13/12/2008