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Chapter Twenty-Three

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Chapter Twenty-Three

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Chapter Twenty-Three

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  1. Chapter Twenty-Three Late Adulthood: Biosocial Development

  2. Prejudices about late adulthood are held by people of all ages, including children and the very old Prejudice and Predictions

  3. Ageism Ageism—a term that refers to prejudice against older people because of their age Why is ageism so strong? cultural emphasis on growth, strength, and progress veneration of youth increasing age segregation

  4. Gerontology Gerontology—study of old age Geriatrics—The medical specialty devoted to old age Two Different Perspectives doctors in geriatrics view aging as an illness gerontologists view aging as socially constructed problem

  5. Gerontology, cont. Contrary to popular belief, many developmentalists now view aging, like all other periods, as marked by gains as well as losses

  6. Demography A reason ageism is decreasing is that there are more aging individuals 7 percent of world’s population now over 65 years 13 percent in developed nations such as United States

  7. Demography, cont. Changing shape of demographic pyramid the population stack has shifted from a pyramid to a square reflects changes in recent decades—fewer births and increased survival By 2030 the proportion of those over 65 is projected to double worldwide—to 15 percent

  8. Dependents and Independence Dependency ratio—ratio of self-sufficient, productive adults (those between ages 15 and 65) to dependents—children and the elderly the greater the number of dependents compared to workers, the higher the dependency ratio

  9. Dependents and Independence, cont. • What are some of the problems cultures may face as baby boomers age? • crisis in geriatric medicine • Medicare, Social Security, and quality private health insurance in jeopardy? • entire tax and caregiving burden may fall on shrinking middle cohort

  10. Reasons Not to Worry Technology and science combining to allow more production with fewer workers Inverse ratio between birth rates and longevity Most people over 65 are not dependent only 5 percent in nursing homes or hospitals elderly married couples take care of each other in other nations, elderly live with their children

  11. Distinctions based on age, health, and social well-being young-old—healthy and vigorous, financially secure, active in family and community life old-old—have major physical, mental or social loses, but still have some strengths oldest-old—dependent on others for almost everything Young, Old, and Oldest

  12. Young, Old, and Oldest, cont. • Some gerontologists like the following terms better • optimal aging • usual aging • impaired aging

  13. Anti-Aging Measures Aging has many causes wear and tear cellular accidents declining immune system programmed senescence

  14. Calorie Restriction Mammals can almost double their life span if they eat half as much food throughout adulthood proven for mice and rats; probably true for monkeys, chimps, and dogs true for humans—probably but must be carefully done Pack more nutrients into fewer calories

  15. Calorie Restriction, cont. • Older people take drugs that are considered harmless, but do affect nutritional requirements • Mammals with reduced calorie intake are stronger, more vital, and younger in their appearance as long as they consume adequate vitamins and minerals

  16. Prejudice and Delusion Calorie restriction may arise from prejudice and delusion An important question: what impact would calorie restriction have on the quality of life? would people be constantly hungry, agitated, irritable?

  17. Primary Aging in Late Adulthood Primary aging—all irreversible and universal physical changes over time Secondary aging—physical illnesses or changes common to aging but caused by individual’s health habits, genes, and other influences

  18. Primary Aging in Late Adulthood, cont. People vary in their selective optimization with compensation—the choosing of healthy activities that compensate for primary aging being experienced

  19. Changes in Appearance Appearance changes as time passes in ageist society, people who look old are treated as old children quick to see the elderly as old-fashioned

  20. Wrinkles, hair changes hair becomes grayer hair all over body becomes thinner The Skin and Hair

  21. Alteration in overall body height, shape, and weight With weight loss may come muscle loss reduces flexibility Self-perception can lead to a feeling of fragility and a fear of falling Body Shape and Muscles

  22. Body Shape and Muscles, cont. • Falls do occur • injuries may require medical treatment • exercise a very effective preventative • weightlifting should be part of the exercise routine • Flexibility is one of the best predictors of vitality

  23. Dulling of the Senses Sense Organs Until a century ago, sensory losses could be devastating Today, they do not have to be debilitating

  24. Vision Only about 10 percent of elderly see well Cataracts—shrinking of lens, causing vision to be cloudy, opaque, and distorted by 70, 30 percent have some visual loss due to cataracts

  25. Vision, cont. Glaucoma—optic nerve damage, causing sudden and total blindness 1 percent of people in 70s; 10 percent in 90s Senile macular degeneration—retinal deterioration 4 percent under 75; and 18 percent over 75

  26. Hearing Presbycusis—age-related hearing loss 40 percent over 65 experience it Tinnitis—buzzing or ringing 10 percent of elderly experience it

  27. Compensation for Sensory Loss Compensation, not passive acceptance, is crucial Adjustment means finding balance between maintaining normal activities and modifying routines to fit diminished capacities new technology available specialists help connect techniques, technology, and people personal determination helps

  28. Compensation for Sensory Loss, cont. • Critical factor is recognition of the problem and willingness to change • Attitudes make sensory impairments less isolating

  29. Compensation for Sensory Loss, cont. • Younger adults and social practices have not caught up • medical insurance may not pay for devices or counseling • elderspeak—way of speaking to elderly that resembles baby talk • simple, short sentences • exaggerated emphasis • slower rate, higher pitch, and repetition

  30. Major Body Systems Primary and secondary aging combine to make all major body systems slower and less efficient, eventually causing death Exercise/physical activity is beneficial helps maintain strength of heart muscle and lungs lack can lead to heart attack improves overall quality of life

  31. Compensation entails medical technology specialist advice personal determination cultural accommodation Compensation for Aging Organs

  32. Compression of Morbidity Compression of morbidity—increasing time for better quality of life without diseases or disability and once morbidity occurs, reducing amount of time remaining before death

  33. Compression of Morbidity, cont. Healthier person likely to be intellectually alert socially active Medical science has made compression of morbidity possible still, each individual must do his or her part

  34. Theories of Aging Many Theories of Aging (300) we will look at two Wear and Tear Genetic Aging Theory

  35. Wear and Tear Theory Compares body to machine Body wears down because of accumulated exposure to inadequate nutrition, disease, pollution, and other stresses women who are never pregnant live longer overweight people tend to sicken and die younger today there are replacement “parts” Wear out our bodies by living our lives

  36. Genetic Aging What makes entire body age? focus on whole body rather than individual parts Some theorists propose that aging is the normal, natural result of the genetic plan for the species

  37. Genetic programming to reach biological maturation at fixed times and genetically programmed to die after a fixed number of years Maximums and Averages maximum life span (humans 115) average life expectancy affected by culture, historical and socioeconomic factors Life Expectancy

  38. Epigenetic theory provides some explanations for primary aging Early adulthood: only nongenetic events are likely to cause death Genetic diseases that affect older people may be passed on from generation to generation Selective Adaptation

  39. Cellular Aging Cellular Accidents accumulation of minor accidents that occur during cell reproduction cause aging mutations occur in process of DNA repair instructions for creating new cells become imperfect cellular imperfections and declining ability to detect and correct them can lead to harmless changes, small functional loss, or fatal damage

  40. Free Radicals Some of body’s metabolic processes can cause electrons to separate from their atoms and can result in atoms with unpaired electron—oxygen free radicals can produce errors in cell maintenance and repair, leading to cancer, diabetes, etc. Antioxidants—compounds that nullify the effects of oxygen free radicals by forming a bond with their unattached oxygen electron vitamins A, C, and E, mineral selenium

  41. Errors in Duplication Hormonal changes triggered in brain that switch off the genes promoting growth The Hayflick Limit genetic clock—according to one theory of aging, a regulatory mechanism in the DNA of cells that regulates the aging process cells stop replicating at a certain point Evidence for genetic regulation from diseases producing premature aging

  42. The Immune System Diminished immune system is weakened Two types of attack cells reduced in numbers B cells in bone marrow, which create antibodies that attack invading bacteria and viruses T cells, which produce substances that attack infection

  43. Scientific support for the immune system theory comes from research on HIV/AIDS HIV can be latent for many years, but eventually becomes AIDS Individuals with weakened immune systems do not live as long as those with stronger immune systems; thus, immunity not simply result of aging Research on Immune Deficiency

  44. Who Cares About Living Longer? Most people are not interested in living longer evidence for lack of interest found in daily habits of many adults in research budgets, less money spent on preventing aging than on treating diseases people would rather have better quality of life than lengthen it

  45. The Centenarians People 100 years of age or older

  46. Other Places, Other Stories Remote regions where large numbers of people have unusual longevity have been found in Georgia, Russia Pakistan Peru

  47. Other Places, Other Stories, cont. • Regions share 4 characteristics • diet is moderate, mostly veggies and herbs • work continues throughout life • family and community are important • exercise and relaxation part of daily life • But birth records of these regions not verifiable

  48. The Truth About Life After 100 Habits and culture allow for better aging Increasing numbers are reaching this age some in very good health centenarians have shorter period of morbidity before death

  49. Chapter Twenty-Four Late Adulthood: Cognitive Development

  50. Changes in Information Processing Schaie’s study found decline in all 5 primary mental abilities verbal meaning spatial orientation inductive reasoning number ability word fluency