Political Geography • Study of the political organization of the world. Political geographers study the spatial manifestations of political process at various scales (Fouberg et al., 2009) • The study of the organization and distribution of political phenomena in their areal expression (Getis et al., 2008). • Many scales, world, regional, state, county, city, etc.
What Makes Mexico Mexicoand The U.S. The U.S.? • Territoriality • Robert Sack’s version: “the attempt by an individual or group to affect, influence, or control people, phenomena, and relationships, by delimiting and asserting control over a geographic area” (Fouberget al., 2009). • Typically a historical reason (U.S./Mexico War). • Typically either an external government or an internal government. • Guns, strength, and money often win.
What Makes Mexico Mexico and The U.S. The U.S.? (cont.) • Sovereignty • “Means having the last say over a territory-politically and militarily” (Fouberg et al., 2009). • Having control or authority, the last say, over a territory. • Recognition is key. • By other sovereign nations. Mexico is recognized as a sovereign nation, the U.S. is recognized as a sovereign nation. As a sovereign nation it has control and the last say within its geographic region.
Where did the geographic region come from? • About 400 years ago, Spain was defined as the area with Spanish speaking individuals, England with English, etc. • Religion might serve as an identifier of regions. • The emergence of mercantilism changed boundaries and sought to make them more defined.
Mercantilism Explainedby someone other than me: (3:52) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9W4e_rN15xA • Only watched until (3:52) into it: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9W4e_rN15xA
My precious… • Peace of Westphalia • “Negotiated in 1648 among the princes of the states making up the Holy Roman Empire, as well as a few neighboring states” (Fouberg, 2009). • Holy Roman Emperor (Ferdinand III), Spain, France, Swedish Empire, Dutch Republic, various princes within Holy Roman Empire, multiple cities present that acted like independent nations. • The Empire of Rome became smaller states. • Sovereignty emerged, meaning that it was agreed upon that states were to stay clear of one another’s internal business. • Westphalian system clearly outlined territories of why one area is different from another area. • Who had control over what resources.
Treaty of Westphalia • Errors in video: • England was not present. • Luxemburg was not divided up. • Point is to talk about arbitrarily drawing up boundaries and the stewards comments regarding people being ignored. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=U3z0zh8kow4