Future Challenges For Australia Australia In Its Regional And Global Contexts Stage 5 Geography Syllabus 5A4
Syllabus Agenda • current and future population trends: • growth rates, age structure and spatial distribution • government population policies to manage population growth • implications of population trends: • ecological sustainability • population movement and urban planning
Introduction • Australia is an isolated continent with one of the lowest population densities and highest living standards in the world. This presents both challenges and opportunities to our country and its leaders. • With the current global population of nearly 7 billion set to reach 9 billion by 2050, overpopulation threatens the quality of life for people everywhere. • A sustainable and peaceful Australian and world population can only be achieved by balancing the needs of all people with the global environment in which we all live. By developing informed opinions geographers can make decisions that will help create a positive future.
(a) Learn the Lingo Go to: • www.studyismybuddy.com • 10G103 Geography tab • Download the learn the lingo document • Research the meaning of the terms detailed
Australian Demography • What is demography? • Three main components of demography: • Populations size • Structure • Distribution • Studying population change involves considering social, economic and environmental issues • The Australian Bureau of Statistics will be conducting a census in 2011 (held every 5 years)
(a) Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) • The ABS is a very important source of reliable information for students • Go to www.abs.gov.au • National statistics • Population of Australia –The Population Clock • Search for the following information: • What is the current population of Australia? • How frequently is there a birth? • How frequently is there a death? • What is the speed of the net gain of one international migration • How frequently is there a total population increase? And by how much? • Find one country with a population growth rate higher than Australia’s and one population with a population growth rate lower than Australia’s. For each country write a paragraph explaining the growth rate.
Australia’s Population Growth • Australia’s population has grown from 3.8 million in 1901 to over 22.5 million in 2011 • Australia’s current population growth rate is 1.8% (2010) – this means for every 1000 people in Australia that year an extra 18 were added
Factors Affecting Population Growth • 1. The fertility rate – the average number of children born to each woman of child-bearing age • 2. The mortality rate – the number of deaths within the population • 3. Net migration – the difference between the number of immigrants and emigrants.
About The Fertility Rate In Australia • Without MIGRATION the fertility rate needs to be 2:1 for one generation to replace the next. • Therefore with Australia’s fertility rate at 1.8% and without migration, Australia’s population would gradually decrease in size Migration + Babies = Population Babies Only = Population
What Is The Optimum Population? Environmentalists will argue the population is already too great for the resources available and the environment is being degraded Others argue for an increased population for reasons of national security and economic growth
To Increase Or To Decrease That Is The Question…….. • Australia needs a larger population to prosper in the decades ahead, to avoid economic stagnation, to go forward as a dynamic, globally linked economy, and to ensure high living standards and high-quality jobs. (Steve Bracks Victorian Premier) • So what’s in population growth for the average Australian? Nothing, except higher house prices and rents, more congested roads and transport, more pollution and waste, more apartment blocks, more crowds everywhere, more pressure on our parks and nature reserves—AND, of course, less water per capita. (Tim Gosling, freelance science journalist with an interest in population and environment) What do you think?
(a) Demography Recap • What is demography? • Why is demography an important aspect of Geography? • Which organisation in Australia produces demographic statistics? • When did Australia’s population reach 20 million? • How does the population growth rate compare with rates in other countries? • Which three factors influence population growth rate? • What is the fertility replacement rate? • What is Australia’s current fertility rate? • Outline one argument for increasing the size of population in Australia. • Outline one argument for reducing the population size in Australia.
Changing Population Structure • It is predicted that in Australia by 2051: • The number of people aged over 65 years will increase from the current 2.5 million to around 7.2 million • The proportion of people aged over 65 years will grow from the current 13% to 25% of the population • The proportion of people over 85 years will grow from the current 1.4% to approximately 6%
The ABS Perspective On Change • Australia is experiencing a shift in the age structure of the population, with an increase in the number and proportion of older persons. • Changes associated with population ageing impact on all aspects of social and economic life. • This trend is expected to continue over the coming decades. • The main factors driving this change in population structure are: • Below-replacement level fertility rates, • Increases in life expectancy, due to improved health and medical care • Shifts in the level and composition of international migration.
(a) Activity - Ageing Populations • How old will you be in 2030? • How old will your parents be? • What will life be like? • People born between 1946 and 1964 are called the “baby boom” generation: • What are some of the effects on society as this generation reaches retirement age? • What is the importance of Pensions and Medicare issues in Australia over the next 50 years.
Retiring Baby Boomers • Challenges and opportunities of retiring baby boomers
Retiring baby boomers • Challenges and opportunities of retiring baby boomers
(a) Activity Population Pyramid • Go to http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/d3310114.nsf/home/Population Pyramid - Australia • Describe the changes in the population pyramid of Australia between 1971 and 2056 • What % of people in 1971 were over the age of 60? • What % of people in 2056 are expected to be over the age of 60? • What % of people in 1971 were under the age of 10? • What % of people in 2056 are expected to be under the age of 10? • In pairs, suggest some of the reasons that may have caused these changes?
Government Policies • The local, state and federal government in Australia have developed strategies, plans and policies to support aged communities • Local level – action plans are designed to increase awareness, encourage action and improve information about the ageing issue • State level – The NSW Ministerial Advisory Committee on Ageing advises the Minister for Ageing on matters affecting the needs and interests of older people in the state, and on the impact of the ageing population
Government Policies • Federal level – Compulsory superannuation has been introduced to reduce the number of people that will be dependent on government pensions • The federal government encourages people to continue working beyond retirement ages
(a) Australia’s ageing population -Computer Activities • Go to website http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/country.php Compare Australia’s changing population structure with other countries • Conduct research to find out whether migration is the answer to Australia’s ageing population, and present findings in written or digital format • Select a developed country other than Australia with an ageing population and research the ways in which they are preparing for the challenge. Suggest one of the strategies that could be used in Australia
Population Distribution • Australia’s population is concentrated in urban areas near the coast. • More than 85% of the population already live within 50 kilometres of the coast with the trend continuing • This puts increasing pressure on coastal environments and leaving many inland rural areas in decline – this process is known as ‘sea change’
Unsustainable Growth In Coastal Areas • The rapid increase in population in coastal areas is causing severe problems for local councils struggling to provide the necessary infrastructure, particularly water and sanitation. • Local services are also put under pressure as the schools, hospitals and transport systems are not able to keep up with the increasing demand
Interstate Migration • Some states and territories are experiencing much higher growth rates than others. • Queensland has the highest growth rate and Tasmania has the slowest • The current trend is for people to move north to take advantage of cheaper housing and better job opportunities as well as climate, lifestyle and retirement
Rural-Urban migration • Reasons people move from small inland communities to larger regional centres and urban areas near the coast include: • Changes in farming practices due to new technology • Loss of traditional industries • Increasing environmental concerns changing land use practices • Decline in rural health and education services due to centralisation of services • Greater consumer demands with regard to retail and leisure provisions
(a) Population Distribution Activity • Research The Shire of Crookwell and identify the challenges it is facing. • Students can create a visual presentation to show either the decline of small inland towns or the growth of coastal developments • Write the script for an imaginary radio or TV report in which the interviewer is asking a young person why they are planning to leave their small country town and move to the city. • Once you have written the script perform and record the interview.
Sydney’s Natural Resources: WATER • the aim is to conserve water by reducing water consumption: Sydney’s population has doubled since 1955 but water consumption has tripled • Business, government and industry account for 30% of water use in Sydney • The benefits of water conservation include: • Reduces the amount of water taken from lakes and rivers • Reduces the amount of waste-water created • Uses less energy to treat and distribute water • Avoids the need for new dams
Sydney’s Natural Resources:ENERGY • the aim is to reduce energy consumption • Sustainable development will need to be based on renewable energy sources as people rely heavily on electrical appliances that provide comfort eg air conditioners
Sydney’s Natural Resources:LAND • New housing developments are occurring and replacing land to grow food • ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT • This is a measure of the amount of land that it would take to produce the food energy and resources that a person consumes (calculated at 1.7 hectares per person) • Average EF for people in Sydney is 7 hectares
(a) Activity • Find a newspaper article on conservation of water or energy from the last 12 months • Develop a dot point summary on this article. • Write a media article outlining the challenges that Sydney faces in trying to reduce its ecological footprint.
Transport • The population in Australia’s urban areas is expected to grow by four million between 2005 and 2030. • Sydney Transport – transport by car is increasing and is causing worsening air quality and traffic congestion • Viable transport alternatives are one of the keys to maintaining the livability of the city. • The aim is to provide residential areas nearer to work and leisure facilities and improve public transport to reduce dependence on cars.
Urban Village • This modern approach in urban planning seeks to combine a mixture of land uses and housing types in community-sized developments within cities. • These urban villages are located at transport hubs and are designed to provide a sense of community where people can live, work and play without having o commute by car.
(a) Activity • Create a plan for an urban village to be developed on land formerly used as old railway sidings. Your plan needs to include: • a map, • illustrations of building designs • promotional material. • Research the ways a city outside Australia has addressed the challenge of either transport or urban sprawl.
Migration Australia’s Migration Program was initially set up to increase the labour force and improve national security.
Types of Migrants • Migrants can become permanent or temporary residents of Australia and enter under one of the following categories: • Employer sponsored • Business people • Family members • Skilled workers • Humanitarian entrants or refugees
(a) Activity • Use the abs website (www.abs.gov.au) to find a table showing the main countries of birth of Australia’s population. • Select four countries from your table and develop a composite line graph to plot the data. Explain the trends shown in the graph. • Develop a poster to illustrate the five types of programs that allow migrants to enter Australia.
What are Human Rights? • Human rights are those rights that all people have because they are human beings. • The recognition that all people should be treated in a decent, equal and just manner led to the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights on 10 December 1948.
Who is a Refugee? • The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (Article 1) defines a refugee as: • A person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well founded fear of persecution because of his/her race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion; and is unable or unwilling to avail himself/herself of the protection of that country, or to return there, for fear of persecution.
Asylum-Seeker or Refugee? • An asylum-seeker is a person who has arrived in another country seeking safety and is waiting for recognition as a refugee. • For this reason there is no such thing as an illegal asylum-seeker. • Often these people arrive without documents because they have fled from regimes that would not provide them or they have not had the time nor means to acquire them.