FSF PSF DIBELS Next LNF NWF DAZE DORF
Objectives of Workshop • Introduce and practice the new measures and new scoring rules in DIBELS Next • Review the scoring rules
Agenda • Introduction • First Sound Fluency (FSF) • Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF) • Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) • Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) • DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (DORF)* • DAZE *DORF includes the new required Retell
Why Use DIBELS Next? • Improved measures based on research and user feedback. • New directions to facilitate students’ understanding • New content, including all new reading passages • New arrangement of items to increase consistency of scores • Checklist of common response patterns to aid in intervention planning • New scores for some measures to enhance interpretation • New more child-friendly font in grades K-2 • New measures - First Sound Fluency - DAZE
Why Use DIBELS Next? • New research on all measures carried out over 4 years on over 25,000 children in over 90 schools -use of new readability formula to level passages and decrease variability of DORF scores -new reliability data -new validity data ~Prediction to NAEP ~Prediction to GRADE • New user-friendly format -Flip-book format for published version -Larger booklet size for downloadable version
DIBELS Next Overview • All measures have been updated with: ~New directions ~New items ~New early reader font ~New passages ~New practice items • New look and feel of all the materials • New measures ~DIBELS Daze ~First Sound Fluency • Retell is part of DORF
What Has Not Changed • DIBELS Next are still: ~Brief, standardized (1minute), repeatable indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills ~Research-based ~Used for universal screening, benchmark assessment, progress monitoring, and systems evaluation ~Appropriate for use within a Response to Intervention model of service delivery
Assessors Materials: 1 scoring Booklet per student Different booklets for each grade Student Materials: What the student looks at to complete the task Only needed for written measures Daze is the only one that students will write on Overview of Materials
General Guidelines for Administration and Scoring • Measures are standardized • Direction need to be presented verbatim • Measures are timed • Timing need to be accurate
General Guidelines: Children • Children are not penalized for differences in performance due to articulation, dialect, or different first language. • All measures have discontinue rules for children who have difficulty. • Make a note for any consistent pattern in performance that may affect a child’s acquisition of reading skills. • DIBELS approved accommodations may be used for children for whom a standardized administration may not proved an accurate estimate of skills.
Approved Accommodations • Only use accommodations for those children who need them. Assess using standardized directions and procedure first. Reassess with accommodations only if necessary. • If accommodation is used, mark ‘A’ on scoring booklet beside score. • Specific, approved accommodations are provided in the Assessment Guide.
Approved Accommodations • Large print or enlarged edition of student materials may be used. • Use of colored overlays, filters, or lighting adjustments is appropriate if vision and performance are enhanced. • Amplification or a direct sound system from tester to student are appropriate if it will facilitate hearing of direction or test stimuli. • If the student doesn’t understand you, there was a distraction, or the students was not paying attention, the practice item(s) may be repeated one time for each measure. • A marker or ruler may be used to focus student attention on any measure that has student materials.
Final General Guidelines • The purposes of DIBELS have not changed • Keep in mind the overall goal and don’t get bogged down in the details. • Practice makes better.
What is Phonemic Awareness? • The awareness and understanding of the sound structure of our language • Understanding that spoken words are made up of sequences of individual speech sounds: “cat” is composed of the sounds /k/ /a/ /t/
What is First Sound Fluency? • First Sound Fluency (FSF) assesses a student’s fluency in identifying the initial sound(s) within spoken words. It is an indicator of early phonemic awareness skills. • What is new for Next? ~FSF replaces Initial Sound Fluency (ISF) ~Does not use pictures ~Timing is continuous for 1 minute…no more start and stop
Why Assess Initial Sounds? Initial sounds are onsets: • Developmentally it is easier for children to hear the onset, initial group of sounds in the word, than to isolate the initial phoneme. For example, it is easier to hear /str/ at the beginning of ‘street’ than /s/.
FSF Scores The student receives 2 points for saying the correct initial phoneme in isolation. /s/ in “street” /s/ in “sun” The student receives 1 point for saying the correct initial sounds (consonant blend, consonant plus vowel, or consonant blend plus vowel). /st/ in “street” /su/ in “sun” /str/ in “street” /stree/ in “street”
Materials Needed to Test • DIBELS Next Kindergarten scoring booklet • Clipboard • Stopwatch • Pen or Pencil
Administration Directions • Place the booklet on the clipboard positioned so that the student cannot see what you record. • Follow these directions exactly each time with each student. • Say the words in bold italic type verbatim.
Let’s Practice • Take out the DIBELS Next Kindergarten Booklet • Open to FSF
During the Test • Say the first word from the list in the scoring booklet and start the timer. • Present the words to the student one at a time by reading down the column of words. • Score the student’s responses according to the scoring rules. • As soon as the student finishes saying the initial sound(s) in the word, say the next word, promptly and clearly.
During the Testing cont’d • Continue to say the words one at a time and score the student’s response for 1 minute. • At the end of 1 minute, stop presenting the words. • Do not score any student responses after 1 minute. • If the student completes the assessment before 1 minute assessment, stop and he/she receives the score obtained. Scores are not pro-rated.
Scoring Rules • Circle the corresponding listed sound or sounds that a student says for a word. • Put a slash (/) through the zero on the scoring page for an incorrect response or no response within 3 seconds. • Write “sc” over the slash and circle the corresponding sounds or group of sounds in the student’s response if the student self-corrects an error within 3 seconds. • Schwa sounds (/u/) do not count as errors.
Final Points to Remember • Wait 3 seconds for the student to respond. • If the student does not respond within the 3 seconds on any word, put a slash over the zero and tell the student the next word. • Discontinue the test if a student has not said any correct initial sounds for the first five words. Record a zero on the total line and on the cover page.
Other Reminders If a student appears to have forgotten the task say, “Remember to tell me the first sound you hear in the word.” Examiner then reads the next word on the list. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ If the student says the name of the letter say, “Remember to tell me the first sound in the word, not the letter name.” • This reminder may be given only once. Schwa sounds are not counted as errors.
Let’s Review FSF! • How do I record a correct response? • How do I record an incorrect response? • What do I do when the child hesitates for 3 seconds? • When do I discontinue FSF? • How do I score an improperly pronounced response that is due to articulation or dialect?
PSF Administration and Scoring of Phoneme Segmentation Fluency
What is Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF)? • Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF) is a brief, direct measure of phonemic awareness. Specifically, PSF assesses the student’s fluency in segmenting a spoken word into its component parts for sound segments. • What is new of Next? ~New directions ~New format ~Stratification of items ~Not administered winter and spring of first grade
Materials Needed to Test • DIBELS Next scoring booklet • Clipboard • Stopwatch • Pen or Pencil
Administration Directions • Place the booklet on the clipboard positioned so that the student cannot see what you record. • Follow these directions exactly each time with each student.
During the Testing • Say the first word from the list in the scoring booklet and start the timer. • Present the words to the students one at a time by reading across the row. • As the student responds, mark the scoring booklet according to the scoring rules. • As soon as the student finishes saying he sounds of the word, say the next word promptly and clearly. If the student indicates that he/she did not hear the word, you may repeat it.
During the Testing cont’d • Continue to say words one at a time and score the student’s responses for 1 minute. • At the end of 1 minute, put a bracket after the last sound segment the student said up until the end of the 1-minute timing. Stop presenting words and do not score any student responses after 1 minute. • NOTE: If a student is in the middle of a response at the end of 1 minute, you may allow the student to finish his/her response, but place the bracket where the minute ended and do not count any sound segments after the end of the minute.
Scoring Rules • Underline each correct sound segments the student says. • Students receive 1 point for each different, correct, part of the word. • Put a slash (/) through segments pronounced incorrectly. • Circle entire words. • Leave segments that are omitted blank. • Write “sc” over any self-corrected sounds that had been previously slashed.
Discontinue Rule, Wait Rule • If a student has not said any sound segments correctly in the first5 words, discontinue the task and record a score of zero. • Maximum time for each sound segment is 3 seconds. • If a student does not say the next sound segment within 3 seconds, say the next word.
Reminders • If a student spells the word, say, “Say all the sounds in the word.” • If a student repeats the word, say, “Remember to say all the sounds in the word.” These reminders may be given onlyonce.
Notes • Schwa sounds (/u/) added t consonants are not counted as errors. • Students are not penalized for imperfect pronunciation do to dialect, articulation delays or impairments, or for pronunciations due to speaking a first language other than English. • Students may elongate the individual sounds and get credit if you judge that they have awareness of each individual sound in the word ( they have held each sound for approximately 1 second).
Immediately After Testing • Make a note about any patterns in student responses that were not captured by the marking procedures. PSF Response Patterns: ___Repeat word ___Makes random errors ___Says initial sound only ___Says onset rime ___Does not segment blends ___Adds sounds ___Makes consistent errors on specific sound(s) ___Other
PSF Review • How do I mark a completely segmented word? • How do I do if the student repeats the word? • What do I mark if the student skips a sound? • How do I record an incorrect sound? • How do I mark that a child blended two sounds?
PSF Summary Start timer after you say the first word. Word repetition: Circle the word Incomplete (blended) segmentations: Underline blended sound segments. Overlapping segmentations: Underline each segment. Wait Rule: Score as incorrect and say the next word. Discontinue Rule: No correct sound segments in the first five words.
LNF Administration and Scoring of Letter Naming Fluency
Letter Naming • Letter naming is not a basic early literacy skill. • The skill of knowing letter names is not essential to reading outcomes. • Letter naming is a strong and robust predictor of later reading performance and is used in DIBELS as an additional indicator of risk.
What is Letter Naming Fluency? • Letter Naming fluency (LNF) is a brief, direct measure of a student’s fluency with naming letters. LNF assesses a student’s ability to recognize individual letters and say their letter names. • What is new for Next? ~ New Font for beginning readers ~ New directions ~Item stratification
Materials Needed to Test • Student materials • DIBELS Next scoring booklet • Clipboard • Stopwatch • Pen or Pencil
Administration Directions • Place the scoring booklet on the clipboard positions so that the student cannot see what you record. • Follow these directions exactly each time with each student.