1800’s- 1860’sThe Transcendentalism Period Created by, Nikki Clewis, Olivia Cunningham and Tommy Hughey
Historical Background • Transcendentalist writers flourished in the 1830’s to 1840’s • During the industrial revolution individuals felt unimportant seeing how easily they could be replaced by a machine along with the downplay of an individuals importance by the church. • Ralph Emerson, a pastor at the time, thought otherwise. He gave credit to the power of the human mind, thinking individuals are the ones that influenced society, not politics, religions or organizations.
Historical Background • Many Transcendentalist were strong abolitionists and opposed the American Civil War. Henry Thoreau, in protest of war and slavery, wrote Civil Disobedience and refused to pay taxes. He was imprisoned for not paying taxes an went to jail for a day. • This display of nonviolent protest inspired many throughout history including Martian Luther King Jr. and Mahatma Gandhi. • Transcendentalist derives from "transcend“, to rise. Meaning to rise above the primitive animalistic impulses of life and move from the normal, rational thinking to a spiritual realm.
1800’s Dresses • This was the style for women in the 1800’s. • In that time it was indecent for women to show skin above the ankle • Hats helped keep the sun off of their fair faces.
Harper Weekly • It was very rare to see a photograph in the newspaper during the 1800’s. • Importance: • right before the civil war • helped the general public see actual images of the war • The public was more aware and involved • The newspaper is now considered collectables
Thomas Alva Edison • Devolved the electric light bulb in the late 1800’s. • light(1): n., v., & adj. n. 1. the natural agent (electromagnetic radiation of wavelength between about 390 and 740 mm) that stimulates sight and makes things visible. 2. the medium or condition of the space in which this is present. 3. an appearance of brightness (saw a distant light). 4. a a source of light, e.g. the sun, or a lamp, fire, etc. b (in pl.) illuminations. 5. (often in pl.) a traffic-light (went through a red light; stop at the lights). 6. a the amount or quality of illumination in a place (bad light stopped play). b one's fair or usual share of this (you are standing in my light). 7. a a flame or spark serving to ignite (struck a light). b a device producing this (have you got a light?). 8. the aspect in which a thing is regarded or considered (appeared in a new light). 9. a mental illumination; elucidation, enlightenment. b hope, happiness; a happy outcome. c spiritual illumination by divine truth. 10. vivacity, enthusiasm, or inspiration visible in a person's face, esp. in the eyes. 11. (in pl.) a person's mental powers or ability (according to one's lights). 12. an eminent person (a leading light). 13. a the bright part of a thing; a highlight. b the bright parts of a picture etc. esp. suggesting illumination (light and shade). 14. a a window or opening in a wall to let light in. b the perpendicular division of a mullioned window. c a pane of glass esp. in the side or roof of a greenhouse. 15. (in a crossword etc.) each of the items filling a space and to be deduced from the clues. 16. Law the light falling on windows, the obstruction of which by a neighbour is illegal. v. (past lit; past part. lit or (attrib.) lighted) 1. tr. & intr. set burning or begin to burn; ignite. 2. tr. provide with light or lighting. 3. tr. show (a person) the way or surroundings with a light. 4. intr. (usu. foll. by up) (of the face or eyes) brighten with animation. adj. 1. well provided with light; not dark. 2. (of a colour) pale (light blue; a light-blue ribbon). bring (or come) to light reveal or be revealed. festival of lights 1. = HANUKKAH. 2. = DIWALI. in a good (or bad) light giving a favourable (or unfavourable) impression. in the light of having regard to; drawing information from. light-bulb a glass bulb containing an inert gas and a metal filament, providing light when an electric current is passed through. lighting-up time the time during or after which vehicles on the road must show the prescribed lights. light meter an instrument for measuring the intensity of the light, esp. to show the correct photographic exposure. light of day 1. daylight, sunlight. 2. general notice; public attention. light of one's life usu. joc. a much-loved person. light-pen (or -gun) 1. a penlike or gunlike photosensitive device held to the screen of a computer terminal for passing information on to it. 2. a light-emitting device used for reading bar-codes. light show a display of changing coloured lights for entertainment. light up 1. colloq. begin to smoke a cigarette etc. 2. switch on lights or lighting; illuminate a scene. light-year 1. Astron. the distance light travels in one year, nearly 6. million million miles. 2. (in pl.) colloq. a long distance or great amount. lit up colloq. drunk. out like a light deeply asleep or unconscious. throw (or shed) light on help to explain. lightish adj. lightless adj. lightness n. [OE leoht, liht, lihtan f. Gmc]
Ghost Dance • history of the Native Americans > Indigenous trends from 1800 • New indigenous musical trends emerged in the 1800s as native communities began to develop their own hymn repertories, fiddle traditions, and marching bands. American Indians began publishing their own hymnals to use in Christian worship during the first half of the 19th century. Some of these books—such as Indian Melodies, published in 1845 by a Narragansett composer.
Literature terms • sim·i·le (sĭm'ə-lē) n. A figure of speech in which two essentially unlike things are compared, often in a phrase introduced by like or as • Dickinson, Emily. I heard a fly buzz- when i died. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice hall, 2004. - “The stillness in the room Was like the stillness in the Air-” • met·a·phor [met-uh-fawr, -fer] –noun 1.a figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance • Emerson, Ralph. The Snowstorm . Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice hall, 2004. - “Announced by all the trumpets of the sky”
Continued… • sym·bol·ism (sĭm'bə-lĭz'əm) -noun The practice of representing things by means of symbols or of attributing symbolic meanings or significance to objects, events, or relationships. • Emerson, Ralph. Concord Hymn. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice hall, 2004. -“We set a votive stone” • point of view –noun 1.a specified or stated manner of consideration or appraisal; standpointWhitman, Walt. Song of Myself. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice hall, 2004. - “I celebrate myself and sing myself” • im·age·ry [im-ij-ree] –noun, plural -ries. 1.the formation of mental images, figures, or likenesses of things, or of such images collectivelyWhitman, Walt. from Song of Myself. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice hall, 2004. - “The clear light plays on the brown gray and green intertwined
Themes • The ideals of transcendentalists included a regard for nature, non-materialism, independence, and individualism. • Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote “The Over-Soul” in 1838, an essay describing his beliefs in a direct relationship one should have with God and Nature; and that mans soul is not an independent organ but everything shares the same, connected soul, an Over-Soul.
Themes • The ideals of American democracy is a cornerstone of transcendentalism, which is tied in to the idea of American individuality. • Transcendentalists question rules and laws presented to them, attempting to changes the ones that they believe are unjust, including the validity of slavery.
Themes • Henry Thoreau wrote the story “Walden” while he lived at Walden Pond, giving much insight to his naturalistic views. • Transcendentalist believed Americas westward expansion held endless opportunities for man and that freedom is in nature.
Themes • The transcendentalist goals was to break free from what is constricting and to move towards freedom and the expansive. • Emerson also published an essay entitled “Self-Reliance”, stating that he thinks mankind is afraid of failure and that people never express themselves. He goes on to say that the first step to be your real self is to be a non-conformist.
Themes • Transcendentalists believed in dualism, or that everything has a natural balance, a yin and yang. Except that things weren’t a negative of something else, simply the absence of it. • Transcendentalists believed the universe is not static, it is ever changing. One should never hold on to the same belief, for tomorrow it may be different.
Poems • Is one of three major types of literature. Form and content are closely connected. • Often divided into stanzas and may employ regular rhythmical patterns or meters. • Ralf Waldo Emerson: “Poems” (1847) • Henry David Thoreau : “The Main Woods” (after death, 1862), “Cape Cod” (after death,1862), “A Yankee I Canada” (after 1862), “Posthumously” (1817-1862) • His work reflects the economy that he strove for throughout his life and “The Walden” reflects that. • Emily Dickenson: “I heard a fly buzz- when I died”, “There is a solitude of space”, “Water is taught by thirst” (there is date to when these were written, only when they were published after 1886, when she died.) • She was a poetic genius who used simple but forceful language. • Walt Whitman: “ • His poems became less confusing and had more symbolic, expression and universal feeling in them.
Essays • Is a short nonfiction work about a particular subject. It can be formal or informal, personal or impersonal. The can be classified by descriptive, persuasive or narrative. • Ralf Waldo Emerson: “Respective Men” (1849), “The conduct of life” (1860) • His poems and essays express his beliefs in individuality and inhumanity’s supernatural connection to nature. • Henry David: “from Walden” (1854) • His master work • Walt Whitman: “Leaves of Grass” (was reshaped and expanded until 1892, when he died.) • He broke traditional rules of rhyme and rhythm, also his life’s work.
Authors Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau Emily Dickinson Walt Whitman
Ralph Waldo Emerson • Bio -. At 14, he entered Harvard and began a journal he kept for all his life. • After School he became a pastor, but that was short lived when he saw the harsh spiritual restrictions and left. • He went to Europe , and when he came back, he started his writing career. • In time, he became a widely sought lecturer. • Works – 1st achieved national fame in 1841, when he published ‘Essays’, a collection based on material from his journal and lectures. • Contributions to Society – he had influence on young people and his beliefs still inspire people.
Henry David Thoreau • Bio – From the time he was a kid, he was eccentric, and rarely followed rules. • It was his mother that kept in school and enrolled at Harvard. • In 1841, while living in Ralph Waldo Emerson’s house became interested in his Transcendentalist beliefs. He dedicated his life to writing about them. • Works – While living in a cabin alone, he wrote ‘Walden’, his best piece and now considered a supreme work of literature. • Contributions to Society - After his death, he received little to no recognition. But since then has grown over the years. His work has inspired writers, environmentalists, and his readers.
Walt Whitman • Bio – Born on Long Island • No formal education but read frequently. • He went to New Orleans for an editor job, but got fired for his opposition to slavery. • He returned to New York and started writing poetry • Works – His life’s work – ‘Leaves of Grass’ • He reshaped it until his death in 1892. • Has become one of the most highly regarded collections of poetry ever. • Today, recognized as one of the greatest and influential poets from the U.S
Emily Dickinson • Bio – Born in Massachusetts • As an adult, highly isolated • Only talked to few through poems and notes • Works – Not until 1955, when ‘The Poems Of Emily Dickinson’ was published that she had recognition. • Most of her poems published after her death • Contribution – Today, widely regarded as one of the greatest poets.
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THE END!!! …BYE =]