managing liquidity checking accounts and bank savings n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Managing Liquidity (Checking Accounts and Bank Savings) PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Managing Liquidity (Checking Accounts and Bank Savings)

Managing Liquidity (Checking Accounts and Bank Savings)

1109 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Managing Liquidity (Checking Accounts and Bank Savings)

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. 9 Managing Liquidity(Checking Accounts and Bank Savings)

  2. The Roles of Money Management and Savings • If you can’t manage your checking and savings accounts properly, you’ll have trouble managing more complicated investments, such as retirement accounts • Why maintain cash balances? • It’s expensive (because you’re forgoing interest income) • But we like the convenience Chapter 9

  3. The Roles of Money Management and Savings • Why savings are so important • Very liquid • Serves as an emergency fund • Allows us to achieve a certain goal (vacation, car down payment, etc.) • Americans save less than 2.5% of their income • Europeans save about 10%+ Chapter 9

  4. The Roles of Money Management and Savings • How much savings do you need? • Emergency fund • Should have amount equal to about 3 to 6 months of after-tax income • Additional amount depends on your goals (short- and long-term) • Do you want to buy a house soon? Need to save for the down payment • Have money automatically transferred to your savings account from each paycheck • Treat it as a fixed expense Chapter 9

  5. The Roles of Money Management and Savings • How fast your savings will grow depends upon: • What interest rate your savings earn (stated or nominal rate) • Frequency of compounding • How much money you deposit periodically • How your account balance is determined Chapter 9

  6. What Determines How Fast Your Savings Will Grow? • The impact of time on interest earned • If interest is being compounded (earning interest on interest), time can have a significant impact • The frequency of compounding • The more frequently money is compounded, the more often interest is paid—so money grows faster • Your effective interest rate is greater the more often interest is compounded • The treatment of deposits and withdrawals • Most financial institutions use the day-of-deposit-to-day-of-withdrawal method of computing interest • Interest is based on the exact number of days the money is in your account • Other methods include minimum balance (will earn less interest this way) Chapter 9

  7. Choosing a Financial Institution • Financial institutions include banks and credit unions • Factors influencing your decision • How important is convenience to you? • Do you choose a bank just because it’s right around the corner from your house? • Convenience is important, but nowadays with electronic banking it’s not nearly as important • Direct deposit, online-banking, epay, etc. Chapter 9

  8. Choosing a Financial Institution • What services do you expect? • Electronic banking • Safe deposit box • Do you want good, personal service where the tellers know you by name? • What insurance safeguards are present? • Most financial institutions (banks, credit unions) are federally insured up to $250,000 Chapter 9

  9. Choosing a Financial Institution • How much does it cost? • Before deregulation financial institutions offered many services for ‘free’ • Charged a basic fee for having an account • Provided free checks, help with reconciliation, etc. • Banks competed on the basis of service because basically all banks paid customers same interest rate on deposits • The spread between interest paid to customers and interest charged on loans was large • Since deregulation banks compete for deposits based on interest rates • Spread on interest paid vs. charged has narrowed • Banks have eliminated ‘free’ services and now charge fees (sometimes very HIGH fees) • Banks collect about $20 billion in fees (up 200% from 10 years ago) • Fees vary widely from bank to bank • Shop around Chapter 9

  10. What are the Major Financial Institutions? • Commercial banks (AKA full-service banks) • Offer: • Checking and savings accounts • Personal and business loans • Trust services • Safe-deposit boxes • Mortgage loans • Discount brokerage serves (maybe) • Convenient (Over 65,000 branch offices across U.S.) Chapter 9

  11. What are the Major Financial Institutions? • Savings Banks (S&Ls) • Traditionally serve consumers • Mortgage loans (make about 40% of all mortgage loans) • Today are more similar to commercial banks • Credit Unions • Cooperative venture owned by depositors and borrowers • Organized to serve specific groups of people • Non-profit so offer lower interest rates on loans, pay higher interest rates on deposits • Generally don’t want to take a great deal of risk Chapter 9

  12. What are the Major Financial Institutions? • Brokerage Firms • Offer central asset management accounts • Combines a checking account, debt/credit card, and a money market fund with a traditional brokerage account • Cash earned from dividends, interest, etc. is automatically swept into a money market account • You start earning interest on your money immediately • You can write a check (or use debit/credit card) to access your funds • Minimum investment required, which varies across brokerage firms • Check out minimum investment amount and fees (if any), customer service, choice of money market funds, credit/debit card features, margin rates Chapter 9

  13. Checking Accounts • Regular checking accounts • Some banks require a minimum balance (average is $500) which give you unlimited check writing privileges • Some banks charge no fee unless you exceed a certain number of checks per month • Banks can pay interest on checking accounts but rarely do • Special checking accounts • Require no minimum balance • Most banks charge a per check fee ($0.10-$0.15 per check) plus monthly maintenance fee • May be a good choice for college student if write only a few checks Chapter 9

  14. Checking Accounts • Overdraft Protection • If you write a check for an amount greater than the balance in your checking account it is still covered • You pay a fee (essentially interest on a short-term loan) • NOW Accounts (Negotiable Order of Withdrawal) • Combined checking and savings account • Pays interest on balance (but lower rate than savings account) • Can write checks (actually are authorizations to take money from savings) • Minimum balance of about $1,000 • If balance drops below the minimum a fee is charged • Shop around! • NOW accounts at credit unions are called Share-Draft Accounts Chapter 9

  15. Checking Account Basics • A checking account allows you to write checks to make payments. • A check is a written order to a bank to pay the amount stated to the person or business named on it. • A checking account is also called a demand deposit, because the money may be withdrawn at any time—that is, “on demand.” Chapter 9

  16. (continued) Checking Account Basics • Checks follow a process through the banking system. • The payee cashes your check. • The bank that cashed the check returns it to your bank. • Your bank withdraws the money from your account and sends it to the other bank. • Your bank then stamps the back of your check, indicating that it has cleared. • A canceled check is a check that has cleared your account. Chapter 9

  17. (continued) Checking Account Basics • Many banks no longer send paper checks to other banks for processing. • To make processing faster and more efficient, they exchange check information electronically by transmitting an image of the check, called a substitute check. • A substitute check can be used in the same way as an original check. Chapter 9

  18. (continued) Checking Account Basics • You must also maintain enough money in your account to cover all the checks you write. • A check written for more money than your account contains is called an overdraft. • A bank that does not honor a check usually stamps the check with the words “not sufficient funds” (NSF) and returns the check to the payee’s bank. • When this occurs, the check has bounced. • Your bank will charge you a fee for each NSF check processed. Chapter 9

  19. (continued) Checking Account Basics • Floating a check is writing a check and hoping to deposit money to cover it before the check clears. • Floating a check is very risky because today’s electronic systems allow checks to process very quickly. • Floating a check is illegal in most states. Chapter 9

  20. Checking Account Advantages • Convenience • Safety • Built-in record keeping system • Access to bank services Chapter 9

  21. Opening a Checking Account • Signature authorization form • Initial deposit Chapter 9

  22. Parts of a Check CheckNumber Name and Address of Maker Date ABA Number Payee Numeric Amount WrittenAmount Memo Signature Account and Routing Numbers Chapter 9

  23. Using Your Checking Account • Writing checks • Paying bills online • Making deposits • Using a checkbook register • A checkbook register is a booklet used to record checking account transactions. Chapter 9

  24. Bank Reconciliation • The process of matching your checkbook register with the bank statement is known as bank reconciliation. Chapter 9

  25. Reconciling Your Checking Account 1. Write ending balance from bank statement. 2. Add credits or deposits not on statement. 3. Total lines 1 and 2. 4. List checks, withdrawals, and debits made but not shown on statement. 5. Total outstanding checks/debit transactions. 6. Subtract line 5 from line 3.(Result should match checkbook balance) Chapter 9

  26. Endorsing Checks • A check generally cannot be cashed until it is endorsed. • To endorse a check, the payee signs the top part of the back of the check in ink. • There are three major types of endorsements. • Blank endorsement • Special endorsement • Restrictive endorsement Chapter 9

  27. Blank Endorsement • A blank endorsement is the signature of the payee written exactly as his or her name appears on the front of the check. Chapter 9

  28. Special Endorsement • A special endorsement, or an endorsement in full, is an endorsement that transfers the right to cash the check to someone else. Chapter 9

  29. Restrictive Endorsement • A restrictive endorsement restricts or limits the use of a check. Chapter 9

  30. Types of Checking Accounts • Joint accounts • Special accounts • Standard accounts • Interest-bearing accounts • Share accounts Chapter 9

  31. Banking Services and Fees GOALS • Describe banking services available at most financial institutions. • List and explain fees charged by financial institutions for their services. Chapter 9

  32. Banking Services • A full-service bank is one that offers every possible kind of service, from savings and checking accounts to credit cards, safe deposit boxes, loans, and ATMs. • Other services commonly offered are online banking, telephone banking, certified checks, cashier’s checks, money orders, and debit cards. • Most banks offer FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) insurance, which protects the deposits of customers against loss up to $250,000 per account. Chapter 9

  33. Guaranteed-payment Checks • A certified check is a personal check that the bank guarantees or certifies to be good. • A cashier’s check, also called a bank draft, is a check written by a bank on its own funds. • Traveler’s checks are check forms in specific denominations that are used instead of cash while traveling. Chapter 9

  34. Money Orders • Banks sell money orders to people who do not wish to use cash or do not have a checking account. • A money order is like a check, except that it can never bounce. • There is a charge for purchasing a money order. • You also can purchase money orders through the post office and local merchants. Chapter 9

  35. Debit Cards • A debit card is a plastic card that deducts money from a checking account almost immediately to pay for purchases. • The debit card is presented at the time of purchase. • When a debit card is used, the amount of the purchase is quickly deducted from the customer’s checking account and paid to the merchant. Chapter 9

  36. Bank Credit Cards • You can apply to a full-service bank for a bank credit card, such as a Visa or MasterCard. • If you meet the requirements and are issued a card, you can use it instead of cash at any business that accepts credit cards. • Banks offering national credit cards usually charge both an annual fee for use of the card and interest on the unpaid account balance. Chapter 9

  37. Overdraft Protection • Overdraft protection allows you to cover checks or withdrawals up to a specified amount, usually between $100 and $1,000, depending on the typical balance in your account. • With overdraft protection, your checks will be covered even if you have insufficient funds in your checking account. Chapter 9

  38. Automated Teller Machines • An Automated Teller Machine is often called an ATM. • To use ATMs, you must • Have a card that is electronically coded • Know your personal identification number (PIN) • Getting cash is a common ATM transaction. • Using a debit card you can withdraw cash from your checking or savings account. • Using a Visa or MasterCard, you can receive a cash advance electronically. Chapter 9

  39. Online and Telephone Banking • Online and telephone banking services give you the ability to access your accounts from a computer or telephone anytime, day or night. • Services include: • Transferring money from one account to another • Paying bills by authorizing the bank to disburse money • Getting account balances • Seeing which checks have cleared and which deposits have been entered Chapter 9

  40. (continued) Online and Telephone Banking • Most banks also allow and encourage electronic transfers of money. • An electronic funds transfer (EFT) uses a computer-based system that enables you to move money from one account to another without writing a check or exchanging cash. Chapter 9

  41. Stop Payment Orders • A stop-payment order is a request that the bank not honor a specific check. • The usual reason for stopping payment is that the check has been lost or stolen. • Most banks charge a fee for stopping payment on a check. Chapter 9

  42. Safe Deposit Boxes • Financial institutions offer customers a safe deposit box to store valuable items or documents. • They charge a yearly fee based on the size of the box. • Keeping important documents and other items in a safe deposit box ensures that the items won’t be stolen, lost, or destroyed. Chapter 9

  43. (continued) Safe Deposit Boxes • Examples of items commonly kept in a safe deposit box include • Birth, marriage, and death certificates • Deeds and mortgage papers • Stocks and bonds • Jewelry • Coin collections Chapter 9

  44. Loans and Trusts • Financial institutions also make loans to finance the purchase of cars, homes, home improvements, vacations, and other items. • Banks can also provide advice for estate planning and trusts. • Banks can act as trustees of estates for minors and others. • A trustee is a person or an institution that manages property for the benefit of someone else under a special agreement. Chapter 9

  45. Notary Public • A notary public verifies a person’s identity, witnesses the person’s signature on a legal document, and then “notarizes” the signature as valid. • Financial institutions typically have a person on their staff who is a notary public. • This person provides notary services for account holders, usually without charge. • For noncustomers, however, there is typically a small fee. Chapter 9

  46. Financial Services • Purchasing or selling savings bonds • Investment brokerage services Chapter 9

  47. Bank Fees • Banks charge fees to their customers to help cover their operating costs. • The best way to avoid fees is to choose the right kind of account. • Shop around and find the account that is right for you. • Be aware of the rules of your account, so that you don’t violate them and be required to pay high fees. Chapter 9

  48. Loan fees Trustee fees Check cashing fees Per-check fees Monthly service fees Overdraft fees NSF check charges ATM transaction fees Safe deposit box fees Teller service fees Minimum balance fees Fees for guaranteed-payment checks Notary service fees Online bill payment fees Fees to return canceled checks Examples of Bank Fees Chapter 9

  49. Consumer Loans • Car loans • Mortgage loans • College loans • Home improvement loans • Unsecured personal loan Chapter 9

  50. Bank Credit Cards • Allow consumers to purchase items in lieu of cash or check • Can also get a cash advance • Even pay your taxes Chapter 9