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The Basic Elements of a Sentence Joachim brought a shy girl to my party . Joachim – noun (proper) and subject of sentence brought – verb (past tense of to bring ) a – article (indefinite) shy – adjective girl – noun and object to – preposition (introduces prepositional phrase)
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The Basic Elements of a Sentence Joachim brought a shy girl to my party. • Joachim – noun (proper) and subject of sentence • brought – verb (past tense of to bring) • a – article (indefinite) • shy – adjective • girl – noun and object • to – preposition (introduces prepositional phrase) • my – possessive pronoun (first person) • party - noun
Subject and Predicate Joachim brought a shy girl to my party. • subject of the sentence: Joachim • predicate of the sentence: brought a shy girl to my party • With a subject and a predicate, we have a CLAUSE; An independent clause can form a SIMPLE SENTENCE.
The Simple Sentence • one independent clause (subject and predicate) • Dogs bite. • All of the students tried to understand the strangely unfamiliar grammar lesson.
The Compound Sentence • two or more independent clauses • joined by a co-ordinating conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so) • Dogs bite, but they are still better than cats. • I call her all the time, yet she never calls back. • The street was empty, and popcorn is inexpensive.
The Compound Sentence II • two or more closely-related independent clauses • joined by a semi-colon • Their presentation was interesting; ours was riveting. • I do not like coffee; I love it.
The Complex Sentence • at least one independent clause and a dependent (subordinate) clause • joined by a subordinating conjunction • after, although, because, if, once, since, unless, when, while . . . (dozens) • Anna holds her breath until she gets her way. • If Mohammad tries to hold his breath, he goes unconscious.
The Compound-Complex Sentence • at least two independent clauses and a dependent clause • Pei laughed when Ali tripped; Ali did not laugh at all. • Since we could not see into the bear’s den, we were not sure it was empty, so we waited.
The Comma • I knew I was going to be late, so I went back to sleep. • The required subjects are mathematics, physics, and English. • I find that a shower a day, whether I need it or not, helps to keep my friendships intact. • Although quiet by day, the club became a noisy, smoky dive at night. • He said, “I really like your hair like that!”
The Semi-colon • I’m too tired; however, I will try to stay awake. • We should eat more legumes, such as chickpeas; fruit, including tomatoes; and grains, such as barley.
The Colon • Eventually, only one thing occupied my every thought: eating. • We do not need to think about many bodily functions: digestion, respiration, and blood circulation, for example. • He said the wrong thing: “Your hair looks cute!”
The Apostrophe Apostrophe Protection Society (U.K.) • use the apostrophe to form possessives • use the apostrophe to indicate the omission of letters