NATIONAL TRAVELWISE CONFERENCE Bristol 2-3 November 2006 HELPING PEOPLE CHANGE THEIR TRAVEL BEHAVIOUR STEPHEN STRADLING TRANSPORT RESEARCH INSTITUTE NAPIER UNIVERSITY
Activity : What shall I do? Destination: Where shall I do it? Mode: How will I get there? Trip Management: When should I go?
The psychology of travel choice OBLIGATIONS, OPPORTUNITIES AND INCLINATIONS IN TRAVEL CHOICE What journeys do I have to make? How can I make those journeys? How would I like to make those journeys? ALL TRAVEL AND TRANSPORT DECISIONS ARE DRIVEN BY THE INTERACTION OF OBLIGATION, OPPORTUNITY AND INCLINATION
TRANSPORT JOINS UP THE PLACES WHERE PEOPLE GO TO LEAD THEIR LIVES OPPORTUNITIES ‘What I’m able to do’ CONSTRAINED BY MONEY, TIME, SERVICE AVAILABILITY, DISABILITY, etc. 70% of UK households have access to a car - and 30% don’t OBLIGATIONS ‘What I have to do’ WORK, SHOP, GET KIDS TO SCHOOL, VISIT GRANNY, etc. INCLINATIONS ‘What I like to do’ I LOVE DRIVING, DISLIKE HAVING MY PROGRESS IMPEDED, HATE WAITING, LIKE TO FEEL IN CONTROL, SAFE, etc. ‘General dislike of public transport as have to travel with general public.’
INDIVIDUAL TRAVEL AND TRANSPORT DECISIONS ARE DRIVEN BY PERCEPTIONS OF OBLIGATION, OPPORTUNITY AND INCLINATION CHANGING TRAVEL BEHAVIOUR PERCEIVED LIFESTYLE OBLIGATIONS What journeys do I have to make? drive as work, commute, child escort, lifestyle maintenance, time out, etc. TRAVEL CHOICES PERCEIVED OPPORTUNITIES How could I make these journeys? (Available) Mode: bus, bike, car, taxi, train, walk, etc. Money, Time INCLINATIONS & PREFERENCES How would I like to make these journeys? (Attractive) Autonomy: control, confidence, safety, Identity & Independence Effort: physical, cognitive, affective
Travel Budgets: Physical, Cognitive and Affective Effort • Physical effort when travelling is used for maintaining body posture in walking, waiting or carrying. • Comfortable seats will reduce the amount of such effort expended. • Negotiating an awkward interchange while burdened with infants and baggage will increase it. • Cognitive effort is needed to collect and process information before and during a journey. • Route familiarity will reduce the amount of cognitive effort needed. • If the journey needs constant monitoring of progress and the seeking out or interpretation of information this will tend to increase it. • Nervous energy is expended on worry about whether the journey will be successfully and safely accomplished. • Uncertainty about connection, arrival or personal vulnerability will tend to increase the amount of ‘affective spend’ on a journey. + time and money
INTERCHANGE NOT CONVENIENT % Agree PHYSICAL EFFORT At the interchange I had to wait for longer than I would have liked 28 At the interchange I had to walk further than I would have liked 11 COGNITIVE EFFORT Before starting I had to plan my journey carefully 44 At the interchange I had to seek out information about the next service 35 Before starting I had to actively seek out information about the journey 33 During the journey I had to keep paying attention to check progress 24 AFFECTIVE EFFORT At the interchange I worried about whether the next service would turn up 33 During the journey I worried about whether I would make my connection 30 During the journey I worried about arriving at my destination on time 27 At the interchange I worried about whether I was waiting in the right place 12 At the interchange I worried about my personal safety 11 During the journey I worried about my personal safety 6
Why is service reliability important to 97% of public transport users? • Reliability enables travellers to meet their travel plans and obligations • An unreliable transport service entails • uncertainty and worry additional affective effort • making remedial plans additional mental effort • undertaking remedial actions additional physical effort
INDIVIDUAL TRAVEL AND TRANSPORT DECISIONS ARE DRIVEN BY PERCEPTIONS OF OBLIGATION, OPPORTUNITY AND INCLINATION CHANGING TRAVEL BEHAVIOUR PERCEIVED OBLIGATIONS What journeys do I have to make? drive as work, commute, child escort, lifestyle maintenance, time out, etc. ALTERNATIVE TRAVEL CHOICES ACTUAL and PERCEIVED OPPORTUNITIES How could I make these journeys? Mode: bus, bike, car, taxi, train, walk, etc. Money, Time INCLINATIONS & PREFERENCES How would I like to make these journeys? Autonomy: control, confidence, safety, Identity & Independence Effort: physical, cognitive, affective
CHANGING TRAVEL BEHAVIOUR PERCEIVED OBLIGATIONS What journeys do Ireallyhave to make? PROMOTING ALTERNATIVES TO CAR USE PERCEIVED OPPORTUNITIES Howelsecould I make these journeys? PREFERENCES & INCLINATIONS How would I like to make these journeys? (Are buses really so bad?) PERCEIVED AVAILABILITY OF ALTERNATIVES More alternatives More knowledge (‘How to’ information) PERCEIVED ATTRACTIVENES OF ALTERNATIVES Autonomy + Mobility Costing / Saving: Time Money Effort Physical Effort (Walking & waiting) Cognitive Effort (Information load) Emotional Effort (Feeling in control, confident, safe)
Changing Behaviour (1) Therapy Analogy • Current behaviour is causing problems in living for an individual and their significant others • The client accepts ownership of the problem and shows ‘readiness for change’ • They receive regular and graded help from a qualified and experienced counsellor with whom they can form a therapeutic alliance involving mutual respect and regard in a non-threatening setting • Jointly the therapist and client can agree a series of small, manageable steps to bridge the gap between start state and desired end-state • Akin to a sports coach or driving instructor the counsellor can monitor progress and give fast feedback to modify aspirations and techniques • Once change is achieved, mechanisms to assist maintenance and prevent relapse can be put in place.
Changing Behaviour (2) Parenting Analogy 1. Don’t just say ‘Stop it!’ or smack, say ‘Don’t do that, because ... <set of plausible and compelling reasons involving upset and lack of equity>‘ 2. Suggest alternative behaviours, saying ‘Why not do this instead, because .. <set of achievable, laudable and pleasant consequences for self and others> 3. Give procedural assistance, ‘Here’s how you can do <wished alternative> 4. Indicate that a competent authority will expend resource, time and effort in establishment and maintenance of new behaviour ‘<parent, teacher, probation officer, government, etc.> will help you’, signaling that successful adoption of new behaviour is actually of concern to those in a position to facilitate its adoption.
Changing Behaviour. (1) Therapy Analogy • Current behaviour is causing problems in living for an individual and their significant others • The client accepts ownership of the problem and shows ‘readiness for change’ • They receive regular and graded help from a qualified and experienced counsellor with whom they can form a therapeutic alliance involving mutual respect and regard in a non-threatening setting • Jointly the therapist and client can agree a series of small, manageable steps to bridge the gap between start state and desired end-state • Akin to a sports coach or driving instructor the counsellor can monitor progress and give fast feedback to modify aspirations and techniques • Once change is achieved, mechanisms to assist maintenance and prevent relapse can be put in place.
Aggregate levels of car use, GB 1952-2000billion person-kilometres of passenger land transport per annum
Aggregate levels of car use,GB 1952-2000 per cent of passenger land transport per annum
Who has access to a car? Scotland: population of just over 5 million people in 2.2 million households with 2.0 million cars Area None One Two Cars per 100 or more households Scotland 34 43 23 93 Highlands & Islands 26 49 26 106 Mid Scotland & Fife 27 46 27 106 South of Scotland 28 46 27 105 North East Scotland 31 44 26 101 West of Scotland 33 42 25 96 Central Scotland 34 43 23 94 Lothians 36 44 20 88 Glasgow 55 35 10 57
Percentage of respondents from households with access to a car for each of five annual household income bands
Percent of Scottish households without access to a car for private use by location and income quintile Lo-est 2 3 4 Hi-est Total Large urban 74 72 51 28 8 44 Other urban 68 64 38 17 4 33 Small remote towns 66 60 37 19 5 34 Small accessible towns 65 55 31 12 3 26 Accessible rural 48 44 21 8 1 18 Remote rural 44 38 19 6 2 19 Total 65 62 39 18 4 33
Why do they do it? Autonomy - feeling in control ‘One of the reasons I like driving is because I’m in control’ [female; age group 36-45; drives 100+ miles per week]; ‘The problem I have with public transport is that I don’t feel in control’ [female; age group 26-35; drives 100+ miles per week]; ‘You don’t feel in control at all on public transport and you’re worried about connections all the time so you’re having to be aware of what the time is every moment’ [female; age group 26-35; drives 10-50 miles per week]; ‘Last year I came in by public transport for about two weeks. It was hell. Freezing to death on platforms waiting for trains that were late. You’re not in control of your life – that’s the only way I can describe it, you’re just not in control. If you know the traffic jam’s there then there are ways to get around it’ [female; age group 26-35; drives 100+ miles per week].
Expressive activity: Transport into the adult realm. “Instead of using public transport you get to use cars.” “Nice silver shiny car. It has to be shiny.” • ‘Driving a car …’ • Is a way of projecting a particular image of myself • Gives me a feeling of pride in myself • Gives me the chance to express myself by driving the way I want to • Gives me a feeling of power • Gives me the feeling of being in control • Gives me a feeling of self confidence • Gives me a sense of personal safety • Automobile = Autonomy + Mobility “It’s going to be purple and hopefully a Skyline but I don’t have a lot of money.” “Windows down, music blaring and just going up and down the street.” “It would just be great, just the total feeling of freedom.” “Like you’re in control of loads of speed” “It gives me independence. Be able to go where I want when I want.” “Not relying on your parents all the time”
But are they enjoying it? Agree Driving a car gives me freedom to go where I want when I want 95% Driving a car is a convenient way of travelling 93% BUT I feel car driving can be stressful sometimes 67% AND I am trying to use my car less 49%
A.Dudleston, E.Hewitt, S.Stradling & J.Anable (2005) Public Perceptions of Travel Awareness – Phase Three. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive. 4 car driver segments which differ in the extent to which: • they exhibit attachment to the car • they are willing to consider alternative modes • they are already multi-modal • they feel willing and able to reduce their car use • they are aware of transport issues • they believe in and identify with environmental problems • DIE – HARD DRIVERS - 26% of Scottish drivers (20% of Scottish adults) • COMPLACENT CAR USERS – 28% of drivers (21% of adults) • MALCONTENTED MOTORISTS – 24% of drivers (18% of adults) • ASPIRING ENVIRONMENTALISTS – 24% of drivers (18% of adults)
Die-Hard Drivers (DHD) like driving and would use the bus only if they had to. Few believe that higher motoring taxes should be introduced for the sake of the environment and there is overwhelming support for more road building to reduce congestion. There are slightly more males than females in this group. Car Complacents (CC) are less attached to their cars but currently see no reason to change. They generally do not consider using transport modes other than the car and faced with a journey to make will commonly just reach for the car keys. Malcontented Motorists (MM) find that current conditions on the road such as congestion and the behaviour of other drivers make driving stressful, would like to reduce their car use, but cannot see how. They say that being able to reduce their car use would make them feel good, but they feel there are no practical alternatives for the journeys they have to make. They are slightly over-represented in accessible rural areas of Scotland. Aspiring Environmentalists (AE) are actively trying to reduce their car use, already use many other modes and are driven by an awareness of environmental issues and a sense of responsibility for their contribution to planetary degradation.
Cutting my car use … Total Not thinking about it 54% Thinking or doing something about it 46% ‘There used to be a time, years ago, when you could say it will take an hour to do that journey. Now, you say that journey takes an hour but it could take three, or 50 minutes if you have a good run. There is no clear time-scale you can allow to do a certain journey, because of bottlenecks for no reason at all.’ ‘Driving in Edinburgh gives me a headache because of the traffic congestion and the impossibility of finding a parking space.’ ‘I’ll try not to go into the city centre unless absolutely necessary (no parking, very expensive) and try to do most of the shopping in malls outside the centre.’ ‘General dislike of public transport as have to travel with general public.’
4:4:2 There is an alternative for about four in 10 car trips – a bus service at the right time, or the trip is short enough to walk or cycle, and there is a safe route. For another four in 10 trips, modest improvements to the public transport network, or provision of a new cycle lane, would provide a practical alternative to driving. A car is indispensable for only two in 10 trips. Car dependent places (rural) Car dependent trips (business) Car dependent people (die-hard drivers, car complacents)
The non-car users divide into three types: • CAR SCEPTICS - 35% of non car users and thus 8% of Scottish adults • RELUCTANT RIDERS – 30% (7% of adults) • CAR ASPIRERS – 35% (8% of adults) • Car Sceptics are travel aware, environmentally aware, managing without a car, more likely to use bicycles and to support constraints on unfettered car use. • Reluctant Riders tend to be older and less well off, involuntarily dependent on public transport and where possible travel as passengers in others’ cars. • Car Aspirers, more of whom are unemployed, from social class DE, and environmentally unaware, need better access to destinations than their current high bus use provides and for this and other reasons aspire to car ownership. “It just gives you freedom doesn’t it? Independence to go anywhere you want and come back whenever you want. You don’t have to wait around.”