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Da jia hao !. The Great Debate – F2F, WWW, or Blended ETIF – Xuzhou August 18-19, 2009. Contributors: Cheng-Chang “Sam” Pan Mike Sullivan Glenda Gunter Robert Kenny Richard “Doc C” Cornell. Agenda. Introduction of the main ideas Advocate of Face-To-Face Instruction
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The Great Debate – F2F, WWW, or BlendedETIF – XuzhouAugust 18-19, 2009 Contributors: Cheng-Chang “Sam” Pan Mike Sullivan Glenda Gunter Robert Kenny Richard “Doc C” Cornell
Agenda • Introduction of the main ideas • Advocate of Face-To-Face Instruction • Advocate of Web-based Instruction • Advocate of Blended Instruction • Audience Vote By Format • Summary
Where we began • Plato, Socrates, Confucius • Traveling teachers • Schools as “factories” • Influence of Dewey, Piaget, Rogers • Influence of Skinner, Gagne, Mager • Influence of Technology Infusion • Influence of Constructivism • Human Performance (Inputs/Outputs) • Today’s generations are different!
A Personal Aside • 1962:First distance learning class (SUNY-Brockport) • 1963: Impact of Don Ely and others • 1963-1992: Media-based instructor in every class • 1987: Goodbye typewriter, Hello PC • 1994: Taught satellite-carried class with multiple off-site sections • 1994-2003: Taught mixed-mode classes • 2004-present: Teach WWW classes with live chats using Blackboard Wimba (2008 and 2009 on-location in Taiwan & China)
Three Advocated Formats…other than televised instruction • Face-to-Face Instruction • “If it works, why change anything? • WWW-based Instruction • “Any time, any place” • Blended Instruction • “Now we can use multiple methods to make it better!”
Ground Rules for Teams • Each advocate team had 20 minutes to state their case. • Opponents rebut by team for maximum of 5 minutes following each presentation. • After all presentations vote of audience taken as to format with audience comments, 2 minute limit for each comment. • Summary and Conclusions
An Informal Poll • F2F ??? • WWW ??? • Blended ???
Then the Games Began! • Face-to-Face Instruction
Face to Face (f2f) • Still primary and most efficient way to deliver instruction. • In some cases, may be only solution. • A mistake to think that e-learning is best solution in all situations.
1. Found online learning to be less effective: Online Courses at UCF • Compared the effectiveness of face-to-face, blended, and fully online courses from 2001 to 2003. • Success rates • Retention rates • Student satisfaction • Also looked at faculty satisfaction with blended courses. - Dziuban, Hartman, Juge, Moskal, & Sorg, 2006; Dziuban, Hartman, & Moskal, 2004
2. Found online learning to be less effective: • Students under-prepared • Disappointment over lack of social presence. • Resulting feeling of isolation. • (Alonso, Lopez, Manrique & Vines, 2005) • Takes a special learning/cognitive type • (Scheick, 2007) • Requires different types of teaching skills • (Kendal & Oaks, 1992)
3. Found online learning to be less effective: • In an informal case study at UCF, two modes were tried in same classroom section…. • Instructors found it to be a minor nightmare to change teaching styles. • Online students disliked course content more.
4. Found online learning to be less effective: • Students dislike lack of personal approach. • Personal tutoring is more difficult. • New Web 2.0 technologies not fully integrated. • Difficult for visual learner.
5. Found online learning to be less effective: • Virtual field trip study, students displayed, expressed little (if any) discernible results in vocabulary than a traditional classroom. (Sanchez, 2006) • On the other hand, VFT’s more effective as a review for real ones. (Spicer & Stratford, 2001)
Why D. E.? • Non-instructional reasons • Instructional reasons
Non-Instructional • Ecological • Economical • Health-related
What is Blended Learning? • Blended learning refers to instructional events that combine aspects of online and face-to-face instruction. • Uses the best of both worlds. - Rooney, 2003; Graham, 2006
Benefits of Blended Learning • Enhanced learning outcomes • Improved access to programs and resources • Increased cost-effectiveness - Sloan-C View, May, 2005
Pew Grants in Course Redesign using Information Technology • Improved student learning in 19 of the 30 projects • Other outcomes • Increased course completion rates • Improved retention • Better student attitudes toward the subject matter • Increased student satisfaction • Cost reduction by 40% on average - Heterick & Twigg (2003)
Sense of Community in Blended Courses (Rovai & Jordan, 2004) • Blended courses produce a stronger sense of community among students than either traditional or fully online courses.
Blended Learning and Performance: A Thomson NETg Study • Compared the performance of learners among three groups who took; • Blended courses • E-learning courses • No training (control group) • Results • Group 1 showed a 30% increase in accuracy of performance over Group 2. • 159% more accuracy than the untrained Control group (Group 2: 99%). - Thomson NET, 2003
Blended Learning Results in the Military Settings (Snipes, 2005) • Leadership development program • Delivered to more than 30,000 learners a year • Study by the Center for Naval Analysis • 44% improvement in knowledge retention • A statistically significant impact on sustained behavioral changes • Individual on-the-job performance improvement by 7% • Cost 94% less than traditional classroom training and was completed in 1/10 of time
Growth of Enrollment in Blended Courses - UCF Source: Dziuban, Hartman, & Moskal (2004)
Projected Growth of Blended Learning in Higher Education Source: Kim & Bonk (2006)
Blended Learning in Corporate Training Settings • Training delivery methods • Classroom training: 62 percent • Blended: 34-37 percent • All online: 1-4 percent - Training Magazine, 2006 “Online methods are mainly used in conjunction with other modalities in a “blended” learning format – very few training programs rely exclusively on online delivery.” (Training Magazine, 2006)
Corporate Blended Learning: International Trends Source: Kim, Bonk, Teng, Son, Zeng, & Oh (2006)
How Important is Blended Learning? Source: Kim et al. (2006)
Most Significant Issue or Problem with Blended Learning? (Kim et al., 2006)
Implications for Instructional Design & Technology • Instructional designers need pedagogical and technical competencies for both face-to-face and online learning environments. • Understanding emerging instructional strategies and technologies for; • Individualized learning • On-demand learning • Authentic learning • - Kim et al., 2006
Emerging Technologies for Blended Learning Source: Kim et al. (2006)
Summary • F-2F • WWW • Blended
Audience Participation • Audience Vote for format of choice