ORGANIC FARMING IN ZIMBABWE Presentation to the Africa Forum 2010 By The Zimbabwean Team KudaNdoro (email@example.com)
Nitrogen Efficiency Situation • Nitrogen fertilizer is the fuel for agriculture • $60 billion market ; tied to natural gas • Less than 50% of applied nitrogen is used by plants • The remainder contributes to pollution • Water runoff > dead zones • Air emissions > Greenhouse gas emissions
Nitrogen and the Environment • Nitrogen fertilizer is key driver of ocean dead zones • Among top 10 global environmental problems • Agriculture is the no.2 industrial source of greenhouse gases • Nitrogen fertilizer the key driver • Nitrogen converts to nitrous oxide in the soil • Nitrous oxide is 300 times as potent as CO2
Industrial GHG Emissions by Sector • Electricity & Heat – 30% • Agriculture – 17% • Transportation – 16% • Manufacturing & Construction -13% • Other Fuel Combustion – 11% • Fugitive Emissions – 5% • Industrial Processes – 4% • Waste - 4% Source: Climate Analysis Indicators Test (CAIT) Version 4.0 (Washington DC: World Resources Initiative : 2008)
Example : Global Rice Production and GHG Emissions • Requires 12.2 M Metric tons of Nitrogen • To produce 12.2 MMT > 30 MM MT CO2 • >20 MM MT CO2 e as N2O • The rice fields release 169 000 MT of N2 0 which is equivalent to 50MM MT of CO2 e SOLUTION: use Nitrogen Use Efficient Technology
Organic Farming • In Zimbabwe • Poor resource endowment • Fragile soils • Cost of organic fertilizer • Availability and affordability of organic fertilizer • Semi –arid zones • Recurrent droughts • Inadequate effective rainfall • Demand for green products • Organic growers use a wide range of cultural practices and natural inputs to manage crops in a manner they consider safe for the environment and consumers.
Organic Farming - Actors • Both large and smallholder farmers • AGRITEX, PVT Sector, NGO’s • Formation of Association in the pipeline • 2000 smallholder farmers involved • Smallholder farmers -200 hectares • High value crops – vegetables, herbs and essential oils • Part of the CA project movement
Organic Farming - Practices • crop rotation • composting • use of livestock manure (cattle, chicken,goats) • mulches and green manure. • IPM • Minimal use of synthetic pesticides and standard commercial fertilizer
Organic Farming –Benefits • Mixed cropping. The use of plant species with insecticidal and repellent properties reduce chemical usage • Organic fertilizers improve the soil by lowering bulk density, reduce soil erosion and improve soil fertility. • Organic matter improves the formation of crumb soil structure, thus improving soil structure, and consequently improves drainage and aeration on Zimbabwean soils • The dark color that comes with organic fertilizers improves soil temperature, with an effect of boosting important microbial activities and root development.
Organic Farming –Benefits • Use local resources- crop residues, manure, mulch • Resultant product continue to supply nutrients for more than one year • premium producer prices - green movement. • Organic farming guarantees us healthier food - God’s way. • technology is compatible with resource poor farmers. • Smallholder farmers lack collateral security to access funds to finance the purchase of expensive chemicals and fertilizers. • By and large Organic Farming is cheap, affordable, healthier and environment friendly. NB Although the costs of chemicals and fertilizers is eliminated there is an increase in the labour costs to produce the environment friendly manure
Organic Farming –Benefits • High degree of EMPOWERMENT OF BENEFICIARIES -bypassing the hurdles involved in agricultural financing as most smallholder farmers lack collateral security. REPLICABILITY • Easily transferrable • Cheap and affordable • Use local raw materials
Upscaling • Information dissemination • Markets for organic products • Availability of labour • Re-orientation of extension