Chapter 4Workplace Safety & Health(WSH) Reference: WSH Council www.mom.org.sg Prepared by: Ng Choy Mei
What Workplace Safety & Health covers The Workplace Safety and Health Act is an essential part of the new framework to cultivategood safety habits in all individuals. It requires stakeholders to take practicable measures to ensure the safety and health of workers and other people that are affected by the work being carried out.
The Workplace Safety & Health framework The three guiding principles are: • Reducing risksat source, requiring all stakeholders to eliminate or reduce the risks they create; • Instilling greater ownership of safety and health outcomes by industry; and • Preventing accidents through higher penalties for poor safety management
The Workplace Safety & Health Act The Workplace Safety and Health Act has four key features: • it places the responsibility for workplace safety on all stakeholders. • it focuses on Workplace Safety & Health systems and outcomes. • it facilitates effective enforcement through the issuance of remedial orders. • it imposes higher penalties for non-compliance and risky behaviour.
What the Act covers: • All workplaces, unless exempted by the WSH Act • Responsibilities of stakeholders • Hazardous substances • Machinery & equipment
All workplaces, unless exempted by the WSH Act • The Workplace Safety & Health Act covers all factories and workplaces of various risk levels and industries. • A workplace is any premises where a person carries out work. • Some of these workplaces are further classified as a factory. A factory is any premises in which any of the following is carried out: • Examples of factories include a manufacturing plant, a car-servicing workshop, a shipyard and a construction work-site.
Responsibilities of stakeholders • The Workplace Safety & Health Act defines the responsibilities for the following stakeholder groups: If you are an employer Protect the safety and health of employees or workers working under your direct control. Duties include: • conduct risk assessments to remove/ control risks to workers • maintaining safe work facilities • ensuring safety in machinery/equipment/plant. • develop control measures for dealing with emergencies; • Provide workers with adequate instruction/training/ supervision.
Responsibilities of stakeholders If you are a principal Required to ensure that the contractor: • has the competency to carry out the work; • has taken adequate safety and health measures necessary used by the contractor or the contractor’s employees. Note: A principal is any person or organization who engages another person or organization to supply labour or perform work under a contract for service.
Responsibilities of stakeholders If you are an occupier • You must ensure that the workplace, all entrances to and exits from the workplace, and all machinery within are safe and without risk to the health of any person within those premises, even if the person is not one of your employees. • An occupier may also be responsible for the common areas used by your employees and contractors.
Responsibilities of stakeholders If you are a manufacturer or supplier • Ensure that any machinery, equipment you provide is safe for use. You are required to: • Provide proper information on the safe use of the machinery • Ensure that the machinery or hazardous substance is safe for use • Ensure that the machinery or hazardous substance has been tested and examined so that it is safe for use
Responsibilities of stakeholders If you are an installer or erector of machinery • Ensure that all machinery and equipment installed or modified is safe and without health risks when properly used. If you are self-employed • Required to take measures to ensure the safety and health of other members of the public.
Responsibilities of stakeholders If you are an employee • Follow the safe working procedures introduced at the workplace. • Do not engage in any unsafe act that may endanger lives. • Use personal protective equipment provided to secure your safety / health while working. Do not tamper / misuse such items provided. • Do not engage in any negligent act.
Hazardous substances The following are classified as hazardous substances under the Workplace Safety and Health Act:
Machinery & equipment Manufacturers and suppliers of following machinery & equipment have the duty to ensure they are safe for use: • Scaffolds and any materials or components used to erect them • Lifting equipment • Forklifts • Power presses • Bar-benders • Equipment or piping intended for operation under pressure • Equipment/piping intended to contain corrosive/toxic/flammable substances • Welding equipment or fitting necessary to enable its use • Materials used for the construction of support structures • Explosive powered tools • Equipment used for abrasive blasting, including any accessory, apparatus or fitting necessary to enable its use and operation.
Achieving sustained improvements in WSH performance A national, strategic and long-term approach is vital for Singapore to achieve sustained and continuous improvement in WSH standards. To achieve this objective, the WSH 2018 was co-drafted by the WSHC and the Ministry of Manpower (MOM). WSH 2018 spells out our national vision, the strategic outcomes and the strategies required to achieve the 2018 vision. It aims to synergise the efforts and resources of all stakeholders to achieve: • The vision of "A safe and healthy workplace for everyone”; • “A country renowned for the best practices in workplace safety and health" and • One of the best safety records in the world by bringing down the national fatality rate to less than 1.8 per 100,000 workers by 2018.
Strategic Outcomes: • The reduction in WSH incident rates; • Workplace safety and health as an integral part of business; • Singapore as a renowned Centre of Excellence for WSH; and • A progressive and pervasive WSH Culture. In order to achieve the desired outcomes, the four identified strategies below will help to guide the efforts of everyone, namely the government, industry stakeholders, employers, unions, workers, WSH professionals, professional and education institutions as well as service providers, in strengthening WSH improvements and paving the way towards safer and healthier workplaces.
Strategy 1 - Build strong capabilities to better manage WSH • Stakeholders to raise WSH performance. • Build strong capabilities including quality-training. • Monitor development of WSH competencies. • Improve risk management WSH capabilities, competency development and delivery, providing practical assistance to stakeholders, as well as building a world-class WSH institute.
Strategy 2 - Implement an effective regulatory framework • Target interventions and strong enforcement action to develop based on trends and developments in the industry. • Create industry ownership for WSH outcomes. • Undertake strategic intervention, resolve systemic lapses, extend enforcement reach and legislative reviews.
Strategy 3 – Promote benefits of WSH and recognise best practices • Encourage employers to better understand the benefits of good WSH performance. • Recognise employers and workers who demonstrate good WSH practices and encourages them to share their experiences. This promotes cross-industry learning and facilitates continuous improvement. • Outreach in WSH, recognition of WSH best practices, driving WSH improvements through large organisations, as well as creating a business case for the management of WSH.
Strategy 4 - Develop strong partnerships locally and internationally • works on inter-agency and inter-industry collaboration. • Engage renowned experts to critique on the development of WSH strategies and standards in Singapore, as well as international collaboration.
What is Safety Culture? Values (Beliefs) Attitudes Behaviours Competencies Four key components WSH culture is about people, and their acceptance of WSH as part of life. An organisation which strives to excel in WSH must take active steps to create a workforce that believes in its declared WSH Values, have the right attitudes for the job, competent in what they are doing, and exhibit the right set of behaviours.
Do you have these beliefs? • accidents can’t be avoided • We have done our best • Accidents will not occurred again • We must be productive at any cost • Work can compromise safety up to a extent
Do your line staff has these beliefs? • safety is not my responsibility • Some body else have to take care of that • I am doing it this way for so many years • Go ask the safety department people • It can’t happen to me!
Development of safety culture Dependent State Engineering measures taken to control hazards • Physical measures (eg barricades, valves, PPEs, Arrestors, Insulators, LVSPs, Ventilation) • Sound engineering standards as mandatory practice • High level of supervision • OSH Regime based on Inspections, Checklists • Clear Rewards and Punishments
Development of safety cultureIndependent State Implement WSH Management System (WSHMS). • Risk Assessment • Safe work procedures and method statements • Training • Emergency preparedness • Incident investigation • Certification under OHSAS 18000, SS 506,ISRS….
Development of safety cultureInterdependent State Building trust between workers and management, having a common set of beliefs, and embracing a common culture of WSH • Ingredients of WSH Culture • Management providing leadership in WSH • WSH Centric Business Policies • WSH as part of core business objectives • Accountability to WSH at all levels • Teamwork to achieve WSH results
Common hazards at workplace Overview Work-related injuries and diseases occur as a result of unsafe acts and unsafe conditions. Unsafe acts usually occur when employees are unaware of hazards or the proper work practices (not adopting the proper methods when lifting heavy objects or not using gloves when handling hazardous chemicals). Unsafe conditions refer to hazardous physical conditions of the work environment and equipment. (a slippery floor or a poorly ventilated office). Work-related accidents and illness can be prevented by recognising the hazards associated with the task to be undertaken and taking the necessary prevention measures.
Common Terminology-WSH Act 2006 “Hazard” is anything with the potential to cause bodily injury (include physical, chemical, biological, mechanical, electrical or ergonomic hazard). “Risk” is the likelihood that a hazard will cause a specific bodily injury to any person. “Risk assessment” means the process of evaluating the probability and consequences of injury or illness arising from exposure to an identified hazard, and determining the appropriate measures for risk control. “Accident” is any unintended event which causes bodily injury to a person, but does not include any bodily injury sustained by a person
Falls from Height Any work activity that involves access to positions that cannot be reached when standing on the ground should be regarded as "work at height".
Falls from Height • Check ladders if in good condition before and after use. • Use ladders on hard, even-leveled, non-slippery surfaces. • Face ladder when standing or climbing it. • Always maintain three-point contact with the ladder
Struck by Object A “struck by” injury refers to an injury as a result of being hit by falling or flying objects.
Manual Handling Manual handling is any activity which • Lifting heavy objects • Jerk to lift an object off the floor • Running with heavy object • Carrying objects by the straps or tapes Distribute your body weight equally to both feet. Ensure a good grip on object before moving off. Place one foot at the side of the load and one foot behind the load.
Manual Handling Manual handling puts employees at the risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) with sprains and strains on the back being one of the most common. • Symptoms of MSD include: • Numbness; • Pain; • Swelling; • Tingling sensation; • Weakness in affected body part; and/or • Stiffness of joints.
Manual Handling • Use of anti-fatigue mat helps to relieve strains on back for employees • who need to stand for prolonged periods
Office Ergonomics • Upright or slightly reclined sitting posture • Top of monitor screen at eye level • Shoulders are relaxed • Frequently used objects within reach