Yang Memorial Methodist Social Service C.A.R.E. Project Youth in care Compensated Dating in Hong Kong A Strategic Solution by C.A.R.E. Project TOM TSE, kei-leung Project Leader C.A.R.E. Project Yang Memorial Methodist Social Service Session date: 2012/07/10 This project is supported by The Community Chest
Conceptual Definition of ‘Compensated Dating’ - 1 • Compensated Dating comes from a Japanese term “Enjo kōsai”, with ‘enjo’ meaning subsidy and ‘kosai’ meaning companionship or association • It is originated in Japan during 1990s where older men give money or luxury gifts to attractive women for their companionship, and possibly sexual favors. • Most will consider Compensated Dating as a juvenile prostitution because it involved a trade between the girl’s body and the luxury goods. • Material or money return is the major concern of the teenagers. There is no love, loyalty, life-long commitment between both parties even though some girls involved will claim it as a dating with older boy-friend or ‘sugar daddy’. C.A.R.E. Project
Conceptual Definition of ‘Compensated Dating’ - 2 • Compensated Dating is very controversial among Japanese and the Hong Kong public. • Sexual transaction is not necessarily a part of the duty exchange while the decision-making authority is more in the girl’s hands. Teenagers still believe it as different from prostitution. • They are not totally wrong, especially because it may involve non-sexual activities such as shopping, karaoke singing and “Part-time Girlfriend” (PTFG). They to keep regular life, including school while participating in Compensated Dating. • Comparing to a prostitute it charges higher for Compensated Dating transaction. So, many teenagers believe Compensated Dating as higher class, self-control and are more willing to participate in the activity. C.A.R.E. Project
Advertising themselves as ‘Compensated Dating’ or ‘Part-time Girlfriend’ C.A.R.E. Project
C.A.R.E. Project – Service for Compensated Dating Youths-1 • The trend of Compensated Dating landed in Hong Kong since 2005 when we identified a few cases involved in the activity. • In 2006, we conducted the first research in Hong Kong studying the cause, effect and the trend of Compensated Dating. With years of practice and investigation through our 2 studies conducted in 2006 and 2011 respectively. • We identified that Compensated Dating is not merely a sex trade issue, but also something related to teenage self-identity, mental wellbeing, illegal drug use, trauma, cyber bullying, sex exploitation, public hygiene, etc. C.A.R.E. Project
C.A.R.E. Project – Service for Compensated Dating Youths-2 • The numbers of Compensated Dating cases rise rapidly since late 2006 with the facilitation of the internet interaction. Teenagers originally expecting to earn easy money were eventually involved in “selling sex” and even fell into various dangerous traps (robbed, physical hurt, raped and video taped of the transaction). • Pregnancy and venereal disease are commonly found, and some may even have mental problem or resorted to drug use. All these cause serious harm not only to the youth involved but also have serious effect to public hygiene with the spread of sexually-transmitted diseases. C.A.R.E. Project
C.A.R.E. Project – Service for Compensated Dating Youths-3 • In Hong Kong since a 16-year-old girl who involved in the Compensated Dating was murdered and dismembered by her customer in April 2008. Although a fatal event happened, Compensated Dating is still an increasing trend in Hong Kong. • With increasing concern from the public, Yang Memorial Methodist Social Service started the first pilot service in Hong Kong in 2009, to tackling the issues involved with teenage Compensated Dating, the C.A.R.E. Project. – Concern Action in Relieving Enjo-kosai Youth C.A.R.E. Project
Aims of the Project There are threemajor objectives to be achieved in this project: • Through counseling and different treatments to help the youths suffered from to Compensated Dating related problem and to develop ability and a healthy self identity through training (social skills, problem solving, etc) to better protect them in the coming future. • To eradicate the misconceptions from publics towards the youths engaged in ‘Compensated Dating’ and to have amore caring view toward the teenagers; • To promote a better social environment through public education and supportive service to the public. Also, we make recommendations to handle the factors contributing to ‘Compensated Dating’. C.A.R.E. Project
Service Target of C.A.R.E. Project - 1 1) Offering case counseling, developmental plan and other related support (e.g. medical, legal, financial) for the youths under 24 who have been involved in Compensated Dating. Accompany teenagers for the whole legal procedures, offer legal consultation Body-check (Testing of venereal diseases or pregnancy), doctors’ consultation Counselling services, Interests classes C.A.R.E. Project
Interests classes C.A.R.E. Project
Make use of Arts Day and Night The client drew about her existing life that she is experiencing. The Complex World The client perceived that the world is very complex. She said the people surround her are all wearing masks.
Five aspects of youths’ psycho-social characteristics 5 aspects were identified to be the major psycho-social characteristics and also the predisposing factors contributed to the trend of compensated dating among Hong Kong adolescent. • Developmental Obstacles (lack of care, concern, recognition, trust, conditional love, abusive or traumatic experience in childhood, etc) • Their Socialized Value Concept (significance of money, associate the social status with the value of products , etc) • Problem Solving Ability (support network, assertiveness, quick-fix culture, etc) • Sex Attitude (double standard of sexuality, earlier sex experience, knowledge from pornography, etc) • Self Identity (rapid body growth, autonomy from parents, negative self worth, etc Their stories reminded us of the need to pay attention to the need of our youths because these different levels of influence can also found among youths not involved in compensated dating
Service Target of C.A.R.E. Project - 2 2) Educational and support servicesfor the parents, sex partners and peers of the youths who have been involved in Compensated Dating. For Parents Counseling services (ie. Interviews, home visits) Parenting education Keep pace with teenager’ needs and cultures Effective parent-child communication Effective ways to deliver sex education C.A.R.E. Project
Service Target of C.A.R.E. Project - 3 3) Educational and support services (public education, lecture courses and research) for the students, teachers, helping professions and the public on the issue of Compensated Dating. C.A.R.E. Project
Our Service School Students Talks, workshops or groups SEX Peer counselors ~ right attitude and knowledge towards sex, positive influence in the school community C.A.R.E. Project
Our Service • For Schools • a. School Teachers • Professional training • Identification of high-risk/ potential youths • Case referral when necessary C.A.R.E. Project
Our Service For Social Workers(helping professions) Professional training The trend, analyze the background and factors Case sharing (Intervention attitude, approach) Identification of high-risk/ potential youths Case referral/ co-work when necessary C.A.R.E. Project
Our Service For Public Conducting regular research to raise public concern on the issue C.A.R.E. Project
Conclusion • In order to better help the youths stay away from Compensated Dating, we need to understand the unique individual need of each youth. • It is found from our practice that the voice and desire of adolescents have been ignored. The public need to care about teenagers’ genuine need and their hidden stories. • We better have a curious mind and look into the underlining need and difficulties faced by the youths. • Persistent patience is need in our intervention because the reward and attraction from Compensated Dating is very high. A joint effort is needed to empower the youths with higher personal identity to overcome the difficulties and develop a better lifestyle.
Global Phenomenon ? French , 2011
Thank You! Our email: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: +852 2332 0969 Fax: +852 2782 0349 Agency Website:http://www.yang.org.hk Project Website:http://careproject.yang.org.hk Our address: 2/F, Hoi Yan House, Hoi Fu Court, Hoi Wang Road, Mongkok West, Kowloon, HK
Our Intervention Direction
Develop positive Attachment Long-term Able to self-manage, make choice and self-reflection – Reality Therapy (3R)Right、Responsible、Reality Raise the motivation to change -- MI/ CBTDevelop Self-efficacy/ Self value Short-term Enhance Self-image/ Self-confidence – Developmental group/ interests classes(Dev. Psychology) Our main concern: Client’s Physical & Psychological health – Assessment (Bio-Psycho-Social Approach)
Enjo-Kosai/ Compensated Dating in HK Include both female or male teenagers. Selling bodies (different forms) in exchange for money or material benefits MAY have sexual favours. Fulfilling material needs > developing long term relationships with the whoremasters or ‘customers’.
Our services Specialized Service Concern Action in Relieving Enjo-kosai Youth (CARE Project) Target: youth at risk in relieving enjo-kosai and their families, youth in community Provide educational and prevention talk and groups for schools Provide holistic treatment and casework for target.
The trend in HK Convenience of Internet (Platforms: online games, discussion forums…) Mass media - Stress on materialism MONEY shortest time make greatest $ fulfill ‘instant needs’ Possibly encounter crisis or trauma (Pregnancy, infection of venereal disesases, being threatened…) Severely affect their physiological and psychological development
Our Concern We CARE about teenagers’ physiological and psychological development. Youths’ developmental needs (For fun ? Control? Love? …) Develop positive values and coping Enhance their ability of ‘self-management’, ‘decision-making’ and ‘self-reflection’.
Our Action Conducted a Research - ‘Exploration of the phenomenon of Compensated Dating in Hong Kong’ in 2008. Establishment of this Project in 2009. Direction: Education, Preventing and Remedial Work
Factors 1. Predisposing Factors Related to the growth experiences – Parenting style, abuse, trauma
Difficult Case Youths who Borderline Personality Disorder • Mistrust on others(Abused by relatives/ family) • Self- blame • Doubt and blame on self – Sex = shame, dirty • Not deserve others’ respect or love • Child experiences Today: Mental illness, personality disorders
Factors 2. Precipitating Factors Immediate events Stress: academic, dating relationship, financial burden, conflicts …
Factors 3. Perpetuating Factors Distorted values, unfulfilled needs, sustained negative influence
Difficult Case Youths who experience Physical/ sexual abuse • Unstable self-identity • Low self-esteem • Compulsive self-harm behaviours • Unstable/ tense relationship with others • Unstable emotional state • Fear of emptiness, being rejected
Operational Principles Bio-Psycho-Social Approach C.A.R.E project 1st -2nd month Client Case Assessment -Analyze the beh. -Influence on psy, bio, social, family. Psy. Society Bio Biological influence: Abuse, rape, infection of venereal disease, pregnancy
Operational Principles Bio-Psycho-Social Approach C.A.R.E project 1st -2nd month Client Psy Case Assessment -Analyze the beh. -Influence on psy, bio, social, family. Society Bio Psy. Problems： ~Insomnia, unstable emotional, flashback on the traumatic experiences, depressed, anger ~May get addiction to drugs or alcohol ~Beh. Symptoms: Headaches, stomache
Operational Principles Bio-Psycho-SocialApproach 1st -2nd month Family (Bkgd, relationships) School (Comprehensive sex edu.) Case Assessment -Analyze the beh. -Influence on psy, bio, social, family. 個案 Work Part-time Values on $ Lifestyle Mode of consumption Psy Society Person-in-Situation Comprehensive understanding on client surrounding SYSTEMS Bio Peers Positive influence Env’t Internet, cultures
Laws which Regulate Sex Work in Hong Kong CRIMES ORDINANCE 200 - SECT 147 Soliciting for an immoral purpose Penalty : Maximum penalty of fine of $10,000 and imprisonment for 6 months. (Those who have committed similar offence or commits similar offence during bail would face heavier penalty)
Laws which Regulate Sex Work in Hong Kong CRIMES ORDINANCE 200 - SECT 137 Living on earnings of prostitution of others Maximum penalty : imprisonment of 5 years
Laws which Regulate Sex Work in Hong Kong CRIMES ORDINANCE 200 - SECT 130 Control over persons for purpose of unlawful sexual intercourse or prostitution Maximum Penalty : imprisonment 14 years Effective Evidence : Control of a person for unlawful sexual intercourse is a severe offence. Generally, evidence of imprisonment, control, authority, influence or coercion is required..
Laws which Regulate Sex Work in Hong Kong CRIMES ORDINANCE 200 - SECT 139 Keeping a vice establishment Penalty : Maximum penalty of fine $20,000 and imprisonment of 7 years
Laws which Regulate Sex Work in Hong Kong CRIMES ORDINANCE 200 - SECT 131 Causing ProstitutionMaximum Penalty : imprisonment of 7 years
Project Development • Gender ( male) • Intervention approach • Mode change keep pace with the ‘new’ mode of compensated dating • Provision of hostels • Quick test on venereal diseases • Injection of HPV Vaccine (Discounted price)