Long-term Causes (for Europe) • IMPERIALISM • Stronger country taking over a weaker country • NATIONALISM • Pride in your country/nationality • MILITARISM • Glorification of the military • SECRET ALLIANCE SYSTEM • Secret friendships that countries have saying they will help them in times of war/crisis
Immediate Cause of WWI • Assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand and wife Sophia by the a Serbian nationalist group called the Black Hand.
Triple Entente/Alliance • England • France • Russia • Italy • U.S.
Central Powers • Germany • Austria - Hungary • Ottoman Empire • Bulgaria
Reasons for US entry into WWI • Lusitania • British luxury liner sunk by the Germans; 1,198 killed…128 Americans • Sussex Pledge • Germany pledged not to target passenger ships • Resumptions of Submarine Warfare
Allied Propaganda • Kinship with Britain due to common language, culture, and history • Friendship with France dating back to revolutionary war support
Hostility toward Germany • Dislike of Germany’s militarism • Attempted sabotage in U.S. • Zimmerman Note – plot to draw Mexico into war against U.S.
American Economic Interests • America, due to British blockade of Germany, sold goods to Allies • Lent money to Allies & would only get it back if Allies won the war
American Idealism • Wilson’s proclamation to “make the world safe for democracy” and a “war to end all wars”
American Security • If Germany were victorious, it would have replaced democratic England as the dominate power in Europe. • It would leave U.S. without allies on the continent
Presidential Powers Increase • ALWAYS IN TIMES OF WAR/CRISIS, THE POWER OF THE PRESIDENT INCREASES!!!!
War Industries Board • Improve production by encouraging mass production
War Labor Board • Settled disputes between management & labor • Agreed not to strike
Railroad Administration • Operated nations RR’s as a single system
Fuel Administration • Regulated supplies of coal & oil
Food Administration • Encouraged America to eat corn and send their wheat abroad • Farmers produced more (supplied the world)
Financing the War • Raised taxes, both income and excise • Borrow money through bonds called Liberty & Victory
Military Selective Service Act • Required all men, ages 18 – 45 to register for military service American Contributions • America comes to the rescue with fresh troops and supplies (HUGE)
Major Points • Self – determination of nationalists • Freedom of the seas • Right of nations to free trade • Fair adjustments of colonial territories • End to secret alliances • Arms reduction – reduce weapon production • Formation of the LEAGUE OF NATIONS
Treaty of Versailles Orlando – Italy Wilson – U.S. Lloyd George – England Clemenceau - France
Terms • War guilt – Germany blamed for the war • Germany had to take full responsibility for the war • Germany had to pay reparations = to $33 billion • Germany lost her colonial possessions • Germany was demilitarized • Each nation had to join the League of Nations
Schenck vs. US Read the case sheet and answer the questions.
U.S. Rejects Treaty • Would end U.S. isolation • Wilson did not include Senate Republicans
Why League of Nations Failed • Did not include all major nations (U.S.) • Lacked power to tax & draft army • Decisions required unanimous vote
Red Scare – Due to Russian Rev. • Strikes blamed on communists • Attorney Gen. Palmer organized raids of suspected “Reds” • Thousands of “suspected” Communists arrested & deported
Nativism • Distrust of immigrants being radical & taking jobs • Favored immigration from N. & W. Europe Sacco – Vanzetti Trial • Two Italian born anachists are put to death for robbery & murder. Weak evidence, many believed they were convicted b/c they were Italian
Blacks • Many blacks go north to avoid segregation & find jobs
Growth of KKK • Klan membership rises • Becomes politically active