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United States & WWI

United States & WWI

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United States & WWI

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  1. United States & WWI

  2. Long-term Causes (for Europe) • IMPERIALISM • Stronger country taking over a weaker country • NATIONALISM • Pride in your country/nationality • MILITARISM • Glorification of the military • SECRET ALLIANCE SYSTEM • Secret friendships that countries have saying they will help them in times of war/crisis

  3. Immediate Cause of WWI • Assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand and wife Sophia by the a Serbian nationalist group called the Black Hand.

  4. Triple Entente/Alliance • England • France • Russia • Italy • U.S.

  5. Central Powers • Germany • Austria - Hungary • Ottoman Empire • Bulgaria

  6. Reasons for US entry into WWI • Lusitania • British luxury liner sunk by the Germans; 1,198 killed…128 Americans • Sussex Pledge • Germany pledged not to target passenger ships • Resumptions of Submarine Warfare

  7. Allied Propaganda • Kinship with Britain due to common language, culture, and history • Friendship with France dating back to revolutionary war support

  8. Hostility toward Germany • Dislike of Germany’s militarism • Attempted sabotage in U.S. • Zimmerman Note – plot to draw Mexico into war against U.S.

  9. American Economic Interests • America, due to British blockade of Germany, sold goods to Allies • Lent money to Allies & would only get it back if Allies won the war

  10. American Idealism • Wilson’s proclamation to “make the world safe for democracy” and a “war to end all wars”

  11. American Security • If Germany were victorious, it would have replaced democratic England as the dominate power in Europe. • It would leave U.S. without allies on the continent

  12. America at War

  13. Presidential Powers Increase • ALWAYS IN TIMES OF WAR/CRISIS, THE POWER OF THE PRESIDENT INCREASES!!!!

  14. War Industries Board • Improve production by encouraging mass production

  15. War Labor Board • Settled disputes between management & labor • Agreed not to strike

  16. Railroad Administration • Operated nations RR’s as a single system

  17. Fuel Administration • Regulated supplies of coal & oil

  18. Food Administration • Encouraged America to eat corn and send their wheat abroad • Farmers produced more (supplied the world)

  19. Financing the War • Raised taxes, both income and excise • Borrow money through bonds called Liberty & Victory

  20. Military Selective Service Act • Required all men, ages 18 – 45 to register for military service American Contributions • America comes to the rescue with fresh troops and supplies (HUGE)

  21. Wilson’s 14 Points

  22. Major Points • Self – determination of nationalists • Freedom of the seas • Right of nations to free trade • Fair adjustments of colonial territories • End to secret alliances • Arms reduction – reduce weapon production • Formation of the LEAGUE OF NATIONS

  23. Treaty of Versailles Orlando – Italy Wilson – U.S. Lloyd George – England Clemenceau - France

  24. Terms • War guilt – Germany blamed for the war • Germany had to take full responsibility for the war • Germany had to pay reparations = to $33 billion • Germany lost her colonial possessions • Germany was demilitarized • Each nation had to join the League of Nations

  25. Schenck vs. US Read the case sheet and answer the questions.

  26. U.S. Rejects Treaty • Would end U.S. isolation • Wilson did not include Senate Republicans

  27. Why League of Nations Failed • Did not include all major nations (U.S.) • Lacked power to tax & draft army • Decisions required unanimous vote

  28. Post WWI Problems

  29. Red Scare – Due to Russian Rev. • Strikes blamed on communists • Attorney Gen. Palmer organized raids of suspected “Reds” • Thousands of “suspected” Communists arrested & deported

  30. Nativism • Distrust of immigrants being radical & taking jobs • Favored immigration from N. & W. Europe Sacco – Vanzetti Trial • Two Italian born anachists are put to death for robbery & murder. Weak evidence, many believed they were convicted b/c they were Italian

  31. Blacks • Many blacks go north to avoid segregation & find jobs

  32. Growth of KKK • Klan membership rises • Becomes politically active