Operations Management Chapter 11 – Supply Chain Management PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer/Render Principles of Operations Management, 7e Operations Management, 9e
Learning Objectives When you complete this chapter you should be able to: Explain the strategic importance of the supply chain Identify five supply chain strategies Explain issues and opportunities in the supply chain Describe approaches to supply chain negotiations
Learning Objectives When you complete this chapter you should be able to: • Evaluate supply chain performance • Compute percent of assets committed to inventory • Compute inventory turnover
Darden Restaurants • Largest publicly traded casual dining company in the world • Serves over 300 million meals annually in more than 1,400 restaurants in the US and Canada • Annual sales of $2.4 billion • Operations is the strategy
Darden Restaurants • Sources food from five continents and thousands of suppliers • Four distinct supply chains: seafood, refrigerated foods, baked goods, restaurant supplies • Over $1.5 billion spent annually in supply chains • Competitive advantage achieved through superior supply chain
Darden Restaurants Supply chains have the same common characteristics: • Supplier qualification • Product tracking system • Independent audits • Employ JIT delivery Receive competitive advantage through rapid, transparent and efficient SC
The Supply Chain’s Strategic Importance Supply chain management is the integration of the activities that procure materials and services, transform them into intermediate goods and the final product, and deliver them to customers Competition is no longer between companies; it is between supply chains
Supply Chain Management Important activities include determining Transportation vendors Credit and cash transfers Suppliers Distributors Accounts payable and receivable Warehousing and inventory Order fulfillment Sharing customer, forecasting, and production information
A Supply Chain for Beer Figure 11.1
Global Supply-Chain Issues Global Supply Chain Issues Supply chains in a global environment must be: • Flexible enough to react to sudden changes in parts availability, distribution, or shipping channels, import duties, and currency rates • Able to use the latest computer and transmission technologies to schedule and manage the shipment of parts in and finished products out • Staffed with local specialists to handle duties, trade, freight, customs and political issues
How Supply Chain Decisions Impact Strategy Table 11.1
How Supply Chain Decisions Impact Strategy Table 11.1
How Supply Chain Decisions Impact Strategy Table 11.1
Supply Chain Economics Supply Chain Economics • Supply chain is a costly activity, so savings in SC costs directly increases profit. • Affects quality of final product • Aids strategy of low cost, response, and differentiation SC must be managed efficiently!
Supply Chain Economics Supply Chain Costs as a Percent of Sales Table 11.2
Percent of Sales Spent in the Supply Chain Percent Net Profit of Firm 30%40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 2 $2.78 $3.23 $3.85 $4.76 $6.25 $9.09 $16.67 4 $2.70 $3.13 $3.70 $4.55 $5.88 $8.33 $14.29 6 $2.63 $3.03 $3.57 $4.35 $5.56 $7.69 $12.50 8 $2.56 $2.94 $3.45 $4.17 $5.26 $7.14 $11.11 10 $2.50 $2.86 $3.33 $4.00 $5.00 $6.67 $10.00 Supply Chain Economics Dollars of additional sales needed to equal $1 saved through the supply chain Table 11.3
Supply Chain Economics Hau Lee Furniture spends 50% of its sales in the SC and has a net profit of 4%. • How much sales should be made to receive the same profit when $1 saving is made in the SC? • What is the solution, if the profit is increased to 6%, thus the system is more efficient now?
Objectives of the Purchasing Function • Help identify the goods and services that can be best obtained externally; and • Develop, evaluate, and determine the best supplier, price, and delivery for those products and services
Reasons for Making Maintain core competence Lower production cost Unsuitable suppliers Assure adequate supply (quantity or delivery) Utilize surplus labor or facilities Obtain desired quality Remove supplier collusion Obtain unique item that would entail a prohibitive commitment for a supplier Protect personnel from a layoff Protect proprietary design or quality Increase or maintain size of company Make-or-Buy Decisions Table 11.4
Reasons for Buying Frees management to deal with its core competence Lower acquisition cost Preserve supplier commitment Obtain technical or management ability Inadequate capacity Reduce inventory costs Ensure alternative sources Inadequate managerial or technical resources Reciprocity Item is protected by a patent or trade secret Make-or-Buy Decisions Table 11.4
Outsourcing • Transfers traditional internal activities and resources of a firm to outside vendors • Utilizes the efficiency that comes with specialization, vendor is an expert in that specialty. • Firms outsource information technology, accounting, legal, logistics, and production • There is no tangible product or transfer of title, only resources (facilities, people, equipment) are transferred.
Ethics in the Supply Chain • Ethical decisions are critical to long term success of SC. Opportunities for unethical behavior are enormous and temptations are high. • Ex: Friendship b/w sales people and customers ..bribery? • Many companies have strict rules and codes of conduct that define acceptable behavior. • Institute for Supply Management has developed a detailed set of principles and standards for ethical behavior. • In global SC’s there are additional ethical issues: labor laws, culture, traditional values: • Ex: Gap Inc. reports that 10-15% of Chinese factories are subject to psychological or verbal abuse; 50% factories in Africa operate w/o proper safety devices.
Principles and Standards for Ethical Supply Management Conduct LOYALTY TO YOUR ORGANIZATION JUSTICE TO THOSE WITH WHOM YOU DEAL FAITH IN YOUR PROFESSION Avoid the intent and appearance of unethical or compromising practice in relationships, actions, and communications Demonstrate loyalty to the employer by diligently following the lawful instructions of the employer, using reasonable care and granted authority Avoid any personal business or professional activity that would create a conflict between personal interests and the interests of the employer Table 11.5
Principles and Standards for Ethical Supply Management Conduct Avoid soliciting or accepting money, loans, credits, or preferential discounts, and the acceptance of gifts, entertainment, favors, or services from present or potential suppliers that might influence, or appear to influence, supply management decisions Handle confidential or proprietary information with due care and proper consideration of ethical and legal ramifications and government regulations Promote positive supplier relationships through courtesy and impartiality Avoid improper reciprocal agreements Table 11.5
Principles and Standards for Ethical Supply Management Conduct Know and obey the letter and spirit of laws applicable to supply management Encourage support for small, disadvantaged, and minority-owned businesses Acquire and maintain professional competence Conduct supply management activities in accordance with national and international laws, customs, and practices, your organization’s policies, and these ethical principles and standards of conduct Enhance the stature of the supply management profession Table 11.5
Supply Chain Strategies • Plans to help achieve company mission. They affect long-term competitive position • Negotiating with many suppliers • Long-term partnering with few suppliers • Vertical integration • Keiretsu networks • Virtual companies that use suppliers on an as needed basis
Many Suppliers • Commonly used for commodity products • Purchasing is typically based on price. • Suppliers aggresively compete with one another; order goes to the low bider. • Supplier is responsible for technology, expertise, forecasting, cost, quality, and delivery • Almost no information sharing • Infrequent large lots • Delivery to receiving dock • Disadvantage: • Long term relationship is not the goal!
Few Suppliers • Buyer forms longer term relationships with fewer suppliers • Create value through economies of scale and learning curve improvements, in the long run! • Suppliers participate in JIT programs, contribute design and technological expertise • Frequent, small lots • Delivery to point of use Disadvantages: Cost of changing partner is high There might be problems with poor supplier performance Suppliers can make other alliances. Ex: Schwinn Bicycle Co. & Giant Manufacturing Co.
Vertical Integration Examples of Vertical Integration Vertical Integration Figure 11.2
Vertical Integration • Developing the ability to produce goods or service previously purchased. Ex. Ford Motor manufactures its own radios. Texas Instruments produce integrated circuits as well as flat screens, calculators. • Integration may be forward, towards the customer, or backward, towards suppliers • Can improve cost, quality, and timely delivery, decrease inventory • Most beneficial when the company has large market share and components are highly integrated • Disadvantages • Requires capital, managerial skills, and demand • Risky in industries with rapid technological change
Keiretsu Networks • A middle ground between few suppliers and vertical integration • Supplier becomes part of the company coalition • Often provide financial support for suppliers through ownership or loans • Members expect long-term relationships and provide technical expertise and stable deliveries • May extend through several levels of the supply chain
Virtual Companies • Vertical integration has many drawbacks, so find good flexible suppliers and rely on variety of supplier relationships. • Ex: doing payroll, hiring personnel, designing products, providing consulting services, distributing products, • Relationship: short term, long term, include partners, collaborators • Results in specialized management expertise, low capital investment, flexibility and speed.. • Ex: Cloth designers give licence to the manufacturer who rents space, lease sewing m/c’s, contract for labor, subcontact other services. • Disadvantages: • - Selecting the companies to join the alliance • - Sharing revenues • - Evaluating performance
Managing the Supply Chain Substantial efficiencies are possible by integration of the SC . However, management of seperate and independent organizations may result in serious inefficiencies. Significant management issues in controlling a SC • Mutual agreement on goals: not on just contact terms • Trust: information sharing • Compatible organizational cultures: strengthen the relationship with formal and informal contacts
Distortions in an Integrated Supply-Chain • Local optimization - focusing on local profit or cost minimization based on limited knowledge • Incentives (sales incentives, quantity discounts, quotas, and promotions)- push merchandise prior to sale • Large lots - low unit cost but do not reflect sales • All result in increased bullwhip effect!
Bullwhip effect Increasing fluctuation in orders towards the upper supply chain. Results in: • Increases cost of inventory, shipping, etc • Decreases customer service and profitability • A well running SC is based on accurate information about how many products are truly being pulled through the system.
Opportunities for effective management in an Integrated SC • Generation of accurate “pull” data. Ex: share point-of-sales (POS) info and computer assisted ordering CAO • Reduction of lot size by aggressive management Ex: develop economical shipments of small size discounts based on annual volume reduce cost of ordering • Single stage control of replenishment A member is resposible for the inventory management of the whole chain like a retailer, distributor or manufacturer.
Radio Frequency Tags: Keeping the Shelves Stocked Supply chains work smoothly when sales are steady, but often break down when confronted by a sudden surge in demand. Radio frequency ID (or RFID) tags can change that by providing real-time information about what’s happening on store shelves. Here’s how the system works for Proctor & Gamble’s Pampers. Radio Frequency Tags
Opportunities for effective management in an Integrated SC • Vendor managed inventory (VMI) use of a local supplier to maintain inventory for the manufacturer or retailer. Supplier delivers directly to the purchaser’s using department. • Blanket orders A contract to purchase certain orders from the vendor. • Standardization Use standard components that do not have slight variations. • Postponement Delaying any modification or customization to the later stages of production. Ex: HP Printers
Opportunities for effective management in an Integrated SC • Drop shipping and special packaging Supplier will ship directly to the end consumer to be assembled, tested and shipped. Ex: Dell Computers. Use of special packaging, labels, optimal placement of labels, their bar codes, etc.. • Pass through facility A distribution center where merchandise is held, but functions as a holding area and shipping hub. Often run by logistics firms • Channel assembly Postpones final assembly of a product so the distribution channel can assemble it.
E-Procurement • Use of internet to facilitate purchasing. • Reduces total cycle time, paperwork, integrates SC, enhances organization’s competitive advantage. • A SC may contain many of the above techniques within automated purchasing systems. • Internet is used to communicate order releases to suppliers, especially for blanket orders. • For nonblanket orders, catalogs and ordering procedures on internet enhance the communicating features.
E-Procurement Environments, Components • Traditional Tehniques • Electronic data interchange (EDI) A standardized data transmittal format for computerized communications b/w organizations. Applies to any business application, like purchasing Provides format for order date, due date, quantity, etc. • Advanced shipping notice (ASN) A shipping notice delivered directly from vendor to purchaser, showing that the vendor is ready to ship. • Modern Techniques • Online catalogs • Auctions • RFQs • Real time inventory tracking
E-Procurement • Online catalogs • Provide information about products and cost comparisons among suppliers in electronic form • Standard items may be purchased by online catalogs • Catalogs are available in three versions • Catalogs provided by vendors • Catalogs published by intermediaries • Ex: www.eksenbilgisayar.com • Exchanges provided by buyers • Ex: Global healthcare exchange, retail goods, defense and aerospace, food beverage&consumer products
E-Procurement • Auctions • Maintained by buyers, sellers, or intermediaries • Use lowerbarriers forentry • Increase in the potential number of buyers
E-Procurement • RFQ: Request for Quote • When purchasing requirements are nonstandard, RFQ preparation is too time consuming! E-Procurement can make it less costly • Improves supplier selection • Ex: GE has extensive database of vendors, deliver, quality, engineering drawings • Real-time inventory tracking • E-procurement supported by bar codes and RFID can provide economical inventory tracking on the shop floor, in warehouses and in logistics
Vendor Selection • Vendor evaluation • Critical decision • Find potential vendors • Determine the likelihood of them becoming good suppliers • Vendor Development • Training • Engineering and production help • Establish policies and procedures
Negotiation Strategies for Vendor Selection • Cost-Based Price Model - supplier opens books to purchaser; price based on time and materials or on fixed cost plus escalation clause for materials and labor changes of the vendor. • Market-Based Price Model - price based on published, auction, or indexed price. Ex: paper prices are available on line at official board markets site. • Competitive Bidding– often appropriate when suppliers don’t wish to discuss costs or where near perfect markets do not exist. Usedfor infrequent purchases but may make establishing long-term relationships difficult
Logistics Management • Objective is to obtain efficient operations through the integration of all material acquisition, movement, and storage activities • Is a frequent candidate for outsourcing • Allows competitive advantage to be gained through reduced costs and improved customer service
Distribution Systems • Trucking • Moves the vast majority of manufactured goods • Chief advantage is flexibility • Railroads • Capable of carrying large loads • Little flexibility though containers and piggybacking have helped with this
Distribution Systems • Airfreight • Fast and flexible for light loads • May be expensive