Chapter 5 African Americans in the New Nation 1783-1820
Northern Emancipation • New England --Slavery collapsed quickly • African Americans refused to remain in bondage • Most white people complied without protest • Massachusetts • African men who paid taxes could vote, 1783 • Manumissions – The legal freeing of slaves
Northern Emancipation (cont.) • Mid-Atlantic states --New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania • Investment in slaves greater than in New England • Pennsylvania approved gradual emancipation, 1780; New York, 1799
Manumission and Self-Purchase • Looser laws after the Revolution • Hundreds of slave holders in Upper South freed slaves • Religious sentiment and natural rights principles • Self-purchase agreements • Masters make a profit • Unprofitable investments • Changing crops • Old age
The Emergence of a Free Black Class in the South • Free black class grew in Upper South • Self-purchase, and freedom suits • Maryland and Virginia had the largest population • Deep South • Much smaller group • Generally the illegitimate children of slave holders • North Carolina made manumissions more difficult after 1777
Emancipation and Slavery in the Early Republic • This map indicates the abolition policies adopted by the states of the Northeast between 1777 and 1804, the antislavery impact of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, and the extent of slavery in the South during the early republic.
The United States Constitution • Slaveholder compromise – to create a more powerful central government • Clauses designed to maintain slavery in the south • Continuing the Atlantic Slave Trade for 20 years • Fugitive Slave Act • Captured slaves in the North must be returned • Three Fifths compromise • When counting population of a state, slaves count as three fifths a person
Cotton is King • Eli Whitney invented cotton gin in 1793 provided an easy and quick way to remove the seeds from cotton • British demand for cotton grows. From 3,000 to 178,000 bales per year between 1790-1810. • Old tobacco growers began to profit from cotton.
Louisiana Purchase • Doubles the size of the United States. • Would the new territory be free or slave land? • Popular Sovereignty - people on the land decide
Scientific Racism • Belief was blacks were unsuited for freedom so declaration of independence didn’t apply. • 1770’s – a study determined that blacks were from a separate species from whites, closer to the great apes then whites. • 1780’s Jefferson argued that science proves that blacks are inferior to whites in both body and mind.
Cool Down • What role did the US constitution play in strengthening slavery and supporting the interests of slave owners?