Classifications of Advertising,Positioning, Branding, and Ad Research Adapted from Milton M. Pressley and from Philip Kotler
Ways to Classify Advertising • Geographic • Int’l/global, national, regional, and local • Business-to-consumer vs. Business-to-business • Retail is a type of local, consumer advertising • Industrial and professional are business advertising • Trade advertising is business advertising targeted to middlemen • Primary demand vs. selective demand • Direct action vs. indirect action • Direct response is a type of direct action • Product vs. corporate/institutional vs. public service • Miscellaneous • Service, idea/cause, end-product, in-store, collateral
The Marketing Mix Step One or Two The Target Market -- Needs, Wants, Expectations Step One or Two The Positioning -- The Story Brand Image & Competitive Advantage Step Three “The 4 P’s” Product ---- Price ---- Place ---- Promotion
Positioning • A Product’s Positioning is • The place your product occupies in consumers’ minds relative to competing products. Think Brand Image, Benefit Promise, and Competitive Advantage. • Volvo, Dell, 99cents, M&M’s, Hooters, Starbucks • It’s how you plan to compete in the marketplace. It’s the reason(s) customers should buy your product, and not the competitors’. • Marketers must: • Plan positions to give products the greatest advantage. • Develop marketing mixes (“4 P’s”) to create planned positioning.
Perceptual Map Luxury Conservative Sporty Economical
The Positioning Statement • The positioning statement guides the execution of the Integrated Marketing Communications message. • Advertising • Public relations • Publicity • Personal Selling • Sales Promotions • What statements/benefit promise led to these message executions? • “Does she or doesn’t she only her hairdresser knows.” • “The good hands people.” • “A diamond id forever.”
Structuring the Positioning Statement • “For (target audience), (brand) is the (superlative: “only,leading, first, best, etc.”) (product category) that (benefit/does what).” • Proof/Support/Evidence supporting the statement. • Features • Demonstrations • Research Results • Seals of Approval • Guarantees/Warranties • Trial Offers and Samples • Reputation • Testimonials/Endorsements
Positioning and Competitive Advantage • The most powerful positioning is one where you have a “U.S.P.”– a strong Competitive Advantage: • U. Unique = Exclusive to you • S. Selling = Important to the target • P. Proposition = Benefit Promise and/or Proof
Steps to Choosing and Implementing a U.S.P. • Step 1. Identify a set of possible competitive advantages. Competitive Differentiation. • Step 2. Selecting the right competitive advantage. • Step 3. Effectively communicate and deliver the chosen position to the market.
Unique/Exclusive Selling/Important Expanding the “U.S.P.” Lasting Supportable Criteria for Determining Which Differences to Promote Believable Communicable Preemptive
Research in Advertising Adapted from Milton M. Pressley University of New Orleans Assisted by D. Carter
Advertising ResearchFive Main Categories • Positioning Research: What to say. • Target Audience Research: To whom to say it. • Creative Research: How to say it. • Campaign Evaluation Research: Did it work. • Marketing Environment: How’s the world.
Advertising ResearchFive Main Categories (Cont.) • Positioning Research: What to say. • Competitive Analysis • Self-Assessment • Target Audience Research: To whom to say it. • Anthropology and Sociology • Social Class and Stratification • Trend Watching • Cohort Analysis • Life-Stage Research • Psychology • Values and Lifestyles (VALS2)
Advertising ResearchFive Main Categories (Cont.) 3. Creative Research: How to say it. • Pretest/Concept Testing Research • Copy research • Card concept test • Layout test • Animatics • Finished Commercial Testing
Advertising ResearchFive Main Categories (Cont.) 4. Campaign Evaluation Research: Did it work. • Post-Testing Creative • Awareness • Recall • Media (Nielson, Arbitron, Simmons, etc.) • Audience size • Audience composition • Readership • Outdoor Recognition
Advertising ResearchFive Main Categories (Cont.) 5. Marketing Environment: How’s the world. • Trend Analysis/Futurism • Internet interaction • Field trips
Research Methodologies • Quantitative: • Surveys • Universal Product Code • Database mining • Qualitative • Focus groups, in-depth studies • Projection • Observation • Test markets
Mid-Term PresentationTopics and Order Cover the following: What’s My Competitive Advantage? Who’s My Customer? What’s My Product? What problem do they have?
Mid-Term PresentationNotes • 5 minutes maximum • Rehearse • PowerPoint including the following: • Slide for each topic • Visuals of the current product, if available. • Only one presenter