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Great Society & Civil Rights Movement

Great Society & Civil Rights Movement

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Great Society & Civil Rights Movement

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  1. Great Society & Civil Rights Movement

  2. The New Frontier & Great Society • Kennedy’s vision of progress – medical care for aged, rebuild urban areas, education • Practiced deficit spending to stimulate economy • Increase defense budget by 20%

  3. Increased minimum wage, extension of unemployment insurance • Established Peace Corps – volunteer assistance to developing nations • Alliance for Progress – aid to Latin America ($12 billion) • Investment in space program, race to the moon (Neil Armstrong 1969)

  4. Johnson took over after Kennedy’s assassination • Convinced Congress to cut $10 billion in taxes: people spent more, businesses & tax revenue grew! • “War on Poverty” – Economic Opportunity Act: youth programs, small business loans, job training, Head Start • Civil Rights Act (1964): prohibited discrimination based on sex, religion, national origin, race

  5. Won big (1964) vs. Barry Goldwater (fear of nukes, not escalating war in Vietnam) • Great Society: end poverty & racial injustice, higher standard of living & equal opportunity • w/ support from democratic led Congress, Johnson able to push through laws on education, Medicare & Medicaid, Housing & Urban Development, immigration, environment

  6. Warren Court: rulings protected rights of the accused: illegally attained evidence couldn’t be used, legal counsel to those who couldn’t afford it, lawyer present during questioning, rights read before questioning • Impact of Great Society: extended power of federal gov’t, poverty fell from 21% to 11%, funding his programs increased federal deficit

  7. Civil Rights Movement 1950s & 60s • Civil Rights Act (1875) declared unconstitutional 1883 • Plessyv. Ferguson (1896): Supreme court ruled separate but equal didn’t violate 14th Amendment • Southern states had passed Jim Crow laws, black facilities were always inferior • WWII helped set stage for movement, labor shortage, 1 million African Americans joined military

  8. Desegregation led by NAACP & Charles Houston • Focused on inequality in separated schools & placed Thurgood Marshall as leader of council • Morgan v. Virginia (1964) – unconstitutional mandating of segregated seating on interstate buses

  9. Brown v. Board of Education (Topeka): segregated schools unequal (unanimous decision) • Reaction was mixed & faced resistance in South (Miss & GA) • Arkansas 1st southern state to admit African Americans to state university w/o order • Governor ordered national guard to turn students away at Central High School • federal judge ordered them in (Little Rock Nine)

  10. Eisenhower placed Ark. guard under federal control • Rosa Parks (1955) arrested for not giving up seat on bus for white man • African American leaders organized a bus boycott led by Martin Luther King Jr.

  11. Boycott lasted 381 days until Supreme Court outlaws bus segregation in 1956 • MLK based teachings & practices on Jesus, Thoreau, Phillip Randolph, Gandhi • joined Southern Christian Leadership Conference that organized other protests & demonstrations

  12. 1960 students from NC A & T organized sit-in at Woolworth lunch counter covered by media • Movement spread, students formed picket lines at national chains that practiced segregation (48 cities, 11 states)

  13. 1961 freedom riders took a 2 bus trip across south to challenge interstate segregated facilities • Bus One was met by hostile mob in Birmingham, Alabama (chains, brass knuckles, pistols) • Bus Two was followed out of Anniston, Alabama • tire blew & fire bomb thrown in

  14. New group joined in Birmingham & were beaten by police & driven to Tenn but returned • Bus driver refused to take them out of fear & riders protested in white only facility for 18hrs until call from Robert Kennedy

  15. Alabama officials promised protection but riders faced violence in Montgomery, Alabama • President Kennedy used US Marshalls to protect them on their journey & ICC banned segregation in all interstate travel facilities • James Meredith won court case for admittance into Ole Miss but Governor refused to let him register

  16. Kennedy ordered marshals to escort him • Sep. 30, 1962 riots broke out • 1963 March on Washington: MLK – “I have a dream” influenced public opinion to support civil rights laws, power of non-violent mass protest

  17. Birmingham, Alabama considered most segregated city, King flew in & led demonstrations • King was arrested on April 12th, 1963 • posted bail & organized a march on May 2 (over 900 arrested)

  18. May 3rd another march, camera caught brutality • Continued protests, boycotts & negative media convinced officials to desegregate & Kennedy to push for new civil rights legislation • Kennedy ordered troops to force Gov Wallace to desegregate Univ. of Ala

  19. Convinced Congress to pass Civil Rights Act (1964): prohibited discrimination, desegregated public accommodations • Volunteers went to Miss to register blacks to vote in 1964 known as Freedom Summer • 3 murdered in Neshoba • Jimmy Lee Jackson shot & killed in Selma, Ala

  20. King organized 50 mile march (March 1965) demonstrators beaten as violence erupted, media captured mayhem • Marchers organized again on March 21st w/ federal protection • Voting Rights Act (1965): outlaws literacy tests, federal registrars sent to South

  21. De facto segregation still existed & more difficult to change (economic & social power) • Urban blacks lived in decaying slums, rent to landlords who failed to comply w/ ordinances, schools deteriorated, unemployment 2x whites • Urban riots erupted in major cities throughout 60s (100, 1967) • Worst was Watts in LA (1965)

  22. Malcolm X rose w/in Nation of Islam • taught that blacks should separate from white society & be able to defend themselves against white violence • Went to Mecca & broke w/ Nation of Islam & changed some of his views, assassinated Feb. 1965

  23. Black Power movement grew led by Stokely Carmichael who was arrested & beaten in Miss • Black Panther Party established in Oct 1966 • Civil Rights Movement in Virginia: Oliver Hill – Legal defense team in VA • massive resistance to ruling, closed some schools, established private academies, white flight from urban schools

  24. King assassinated on April 4, 1968 • March 1968 the Kerner Commission issued report on urban violence - named 1 cause: white racism • helped end de jure segregation in schools, housing, transportation; passed Civil Rights legislation, graduation rates rose, pride & identity, increased voters/elected officials, lowered “colored bar” in entertainment

  25. Image Sources (in order) • http://ricecr0607.wikispaces.com/file/view/civil_rights_march_cut.jpg/30658315/civil_rights_march_cut.jpg • http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/207152main_vonbraun-kennedy-516.jpg • http://www.thefilmchair.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/moon.jpg • http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/images/swearin.jpg • http://img.timeinc.net/time/poy2000/images/lbj.jpg • http://supremecourthaiku.com/yahoo_site_admin/assets/images/EarlWarren.30121901_std.jpg • http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAjimcrow2.jpg • http://www.aaregistry.org/aareg_files/event_images/MorganVsVirginia.gif • http://blogs-images.forbes.com/shenegotiates/files/2011/04/girl-with-newspaper.jpg • http://www2.needham.k12.ma.us/nhs/cur/wwII/07/p4-07/LHP/images/RosaParks.jpg • http://www.blackpast.org/files/blackpast_images/bus_boycott.jpg • http://www.hunterbear.org/sitin.jpg • http://biology.clc.uc.edu/fankhauser/Society/freedom_rides/freedom_ride_jpegs/14_slide0001_image029.jpg • http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/media_content/m-2479.jpg • http://findingpeaceintheinbetween.files.wordpress.com/2010/12/1ontd00z1.jpeg • http://blog.masslive.com/nie/2008/01/large_kill.jpg • http://www.history.com/images/media/slideshow/martin-luther-king-jr/mlk-1965-selma-montgomery-march.jpg • http://image.absoluteastronomy.com/images/encyclopediaimages/b/bl/bloody_sunday-officers_await_demonstrators.jpg • http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/media_content/m-2552.jpg • http://sharing.myfoxchicago.com/sharewhbq//photo/2010/11/15/Bloody_Sunday-Alabama_police_attack_20101115124507_320_240.JPEG • http://www.iamcocoa.com/storage/malcolm_x.jpg?__SQUARESPACE_CACHEVERSION=1298311001919 • http://www.iamcocoa.com/storage/malcolm_x.jpg?__SQUARESPACE_CACHEVERSION=1298311001919 • http://blackactivism.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/stokely-carmichael.jpg • http://www.ou.edu/special/albertctr/archives/exhibit/Centennial/WKWB%208/kernercomission.jpg