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Learning from Hybrid Rice story of China

Learning from Hybrid Rice story of China

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Learning from Hybrid Rice story of China

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  1. Learning from Hybrid Rice story of China Ashok Gulati Director in Asia, International Food Policy Research Institute, New Delhi Office Presentation at the wksp on: Bringing Green Revolution to Eastern India: Hotel Taj Bengal, Kolkata, July 9-10, 2010.

  2. Paddy Production & Area Performance: China, India Pdn=mt, Area=mha, Yield= t/ha Source: For India: MoA, 2010 (Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2009. For China: National Bureau of Statistics, 2010 (China Statistical Yearbook, 2009)

  3. Case of China’s Hybrid Rice (HR) History of Hybrid Rice Technology Development in China Source: Li, Xin & Yuan, 2009

  4. Impact of Hybrid Rice Varieties on Yields Paddy Yields in China & India & Share of Hybrid rice in China’s rice area Yield Jumps due to HR? Source: FAOSTAT & Li, Xin & Yuan (2009)

  5. How did China Succeed? Three Lessons … • Lesson 1. Political Will & Commitment…matched by commensurate resources (China’s political commitment triggered by the debacle in Great Leap Forward during 1958-61 when 30 m people died of starvation…China invested in research 1964-74) • Lesson 2: A Champion…a Visionary with a mission: Father of Hybrid Rice in China • Longping Yuan led research in 14 provinces in 1970s • Rice breeders: >1,000 parental lines & >300 large-scale commercialized hybrids by 1990s • Pioneering Super Hybrid Rice- Yields > 10 t/ha Source: Li, Xin & Yuan, 2009

  6. Contd.. • Lesson 3. Institutional Innovation & Dynamism • Dynamic & widespread multi-tiered research institutes, seed production & extension agencies (more than 3000 seed companies created) • Massive Demonstrations & training; Reward & recognition • Scaling up seed production & lowering seed costs, minimum quality testing for seeds from 1985 onwards Source: Li, Xin & Yuan, 2009

  7. Commercial hybrid rice yield and hybrid rice seed yield in China (1976-2008) Source: Li, Xin & Yuan, 2009

  8. India: Rice Area & Production Distribution (TE 2007/08)~Eastern States account for: 56% area but produce 48% of All India Source: Agriculture Statistics at a Glance (various issues)

  9. Market Size: Hybrid Rice Seeds sold in tonnes~Increasing sales but the levels are low Source: Singh et al. 2010. “Quality Seed For Food Security through PPP: Focus on Hybrid Rice”. A presentation made at the “National Seminar on- Quality Seed for Food Security through Public- Private Partnership”. 13-14 April 2010, IARI, New Delhi

  10. Hybrid Rice in India (Area over the years)-A positive trend but still only ~ 3% of total rice area 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: Singh et al. 2010. “Quality Seed For Food Security through PPP: Focus on Hybrid Rice”. A presentation made at the “National Seminar on- Quality Seed for Food Security through Public- Private Partnership”. 13-14 April 2010, IARI, New Delhi

  11. Some Issues • Taste & quality (can be improved with research- China has done it) • Incentives for Hybrid Rice: Seed price subsidy (costs) and procurement of hybrid output for PDS • Bt Rice: Move from Fiber to Food • In China (2008) a new GM program at US$ 3.8 billion for 2009-2020; Bt Rice approved from Nov 2009 (Huang, 2010) • Bio-fortification of HR (Harvest plus, Golden Rice) & combining production & nutrition/health policy • Distribution of HR via PDS, ICDS & MDMS

  12. Creating more space for the Private sector to bring GR in eastern region… • Seed production, multiplication & distribution • Extension activities How? • Identify high potential districts where pvt sector can focus – esp. in east • Treat public & private sectors alike- scope for partnerships • Conditional rewards system based on performance

  13. What else should the Elephant learn from the Dragon to ensure Food Security of the masses?Understanding the Reforms Process Firing Up from the Bottom Trickling Down from the Top

  14. Some suggestions • Set up a working group with representatives from; • Public Sector research & policy director of NFSM, ICAR, DRR etc. • Private sector HR seed research companies • External experts • Visit China to interact with key players • IFPRI as facilitator

  15. Thank You