An Era of Democracy, Reform and Imperialism and Transformations Around the Globe AP Unit #12 – Chapters 26 & 29
Suffrage • The right to vote; Suffrage was a goal of the middle and lower-classes in Western Europe and the United States during the mid-19th century and became the key goal of the worldwide Women’s Rights Movement of the late-19th and early 20th centuries. • In 1800 women were mainly defined by their family and household roles. The vast majority of women throughout Europe and the United States had no legal identity apart from their husbands. Married women could not be a party in a lawsuit, could not sit on a jury, could not hold property in their own names, and could not write a will. Women in the early 19th century remained legally inferior and economically dependent on men. In the course of the 19th century and during the Second Industrial Revolution, women struggled to change their status. During much of the 19th century, working-class groups maintained the belief that women should remain at home to bear and nurture children and should not be allowed in the industrial workforce. The Second Industrial Revolution, however, opened the door to new jobs for women. There were not enough men to fill the relatively low-paid, white-collar jobs being created, so employers began to hire women. Both industrial plants and retail shops needed clerks, typists, secretaries, file clerks, and salesclerks. The expansion of government services created some job opportunities for women. They could be secretaries and telephone operators, and also took jobs in education, health, and social services. While some middle-class women held these jobs, they were mainly filled by the working class who aspired to a better quality of life. • Many people in the 19th century believed that men were responsible to work outside the home while women should care for the family. During the 1800s, marriage remained the only honorable and available career for most women. The number of children born to the average woman began to decline – the most significant development in the modern family. This decline was tied to improved economic conditions, as well as to increased use of birth control. In 1882 Europe’s first birth control clinic opened in Amsterdam. Closure Question #1: Explain why the birthrate declined during the 1800s. (At least 1 sentence)
Chartist Movement • A popular movement among workers and other groups who were not permitted to vote in Great Britain in the early 19th century. Leaders of the movement presented the demands to British Parliament first in 1838, though Parliament did not grant working-class urban men the right to vote until 1867. By the early 1900s most adult males in Britain had the right to vote. • The People’s Charter called for suffrage for all men and annual Parliamentary elections. It also proposed to reform Parliament in other ways. In Britain at the time, eligible men voted openly. Since their vote was not secret, they could feel pressure to vote in a certain way. Members of Parliament had to own land and received no salary, so they needed to be wealthy. The Chartists wanted to make Parliament responsive to the lower classes. To do this, they demanded a secret ballot, an end to property requirements for serving in Parliament, and pay for members of Parliament. • Parliament rejected the Chartists’ demands. However, their protests convinced many people that the workers had valid complaints. Over the years, workers continued to press for political reform, and Parliament responded. It gave the vote to working-class men in 1867 and to male rural workers in 1884. After 1884, most males in Britain had the right to vote. By the early 1900s, all the demands of the Chartists, except for annual elections, became law.
Queen Victoria • Ruler of England from 1837 to 1901; Victoria’s sense of duty and moral respectability demonstrated the attitude of the British during her rule, which came to be known as the Victorian Age. • The figure who presided over all this historic change was Queen Victoria. Victoria came to the throne in 1837 at the age of 18. She was queen for nearly 64 years. During the Victorian Age, the British Empire reached the height of its wealth and power. Victoria was popular with her subjects, and she performed her duties capably. However, she was forced to accept a less powerful role for the monarchy. The kings who preceded Victoria in the 1700s and 1800s had exercised great influence over Parliament. The spread of democracy in the 1800s shifted political power almost completely to Parliament, and especially to the elected House of Commons. Now the government was completely run by the prime minister and the cabinet. • About two years after her coronation, Queen Victoria fell in love with her cousin Albert, a German prince. She proposed to him and they were married in 1840. Together they had nine children. Prince Albert established a tone of politeness and correct behavior at court, and the royal couple presented a picture of loving family life that became a British ideal. After Albert died in 1861, the queen wore black silk for the rest of her life in mourning. She once said of Albert, “Without him everything loses its interest.”
Third Republic • Government established by the French National Assembly in 1875. The Third Republic ruled France until World War II, but with a dozen political parties competing for power France remained divided. • In 1890, several industrial countries had universal male suffrage (the right for all men to vote.) No country, however, allowed women to vote. As more men gained suffrage, more women demanded the same. During the 1800s, women in both Great Britain and the United States worked to gain the right to vote. British women organized reform societies and protested unfair laws and customs. AS women became more vocal, however, resistance to their demands grew. Many people, both men and women, thought that woman suffrage was too radical a break with tradition. Some claimed that women lacked the ability to take part in politics. • After decades of peaceful efforts to win the right to vote, some women took more drastic steps. In Britain, Emmeline Pankhurst formed the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) in 1903. The WSPU became the most militant organization for women’s rights. Its goal was to draw attention to the cause of woman suffrage. Emmeline Pankhurst, her daughters, Christabel and Sylvia, and other WSPY members were arrested and imprisoned many times. When they were jailed, the Pankhursts led hunger strikes to keep their cause in the public eye. British officials force-fed Sylvia and other activists to keep them alive. Though the woman suffrage movement gained attention between 1880 and 1914, its successes were gradual. Women did not gain the right to vote in national elections in Great Britain and the United States until after World War I. Closure Question #2: Why was the road to democracy more difficult for France than for England?
Dreyfus Affair / Anti-Semitism • Anti-Semitism – Prejudice against Jews; Anti-Semitism has played a prominent role in European society since the fall of the Roman Empire, with many European nations preventing Jews from owning land or participating in European politics. • Dreyfus Affair – Controversy within France surrounding Captain Alfred Dreyfus, one of the few Jewish officers in the French army. In 1894, Dreyfus was accused of selling military secrets to Germany, found guilty and sentenced to life in prison on what was later found to be false evidence presented by other army officers. The Dreyfus Affair divided France, with many members of society arguing that Dreyfus’ case ought not to be reopened even when information proving that he had been framed was brought to light. • Public opinion was sharply divided over the scandal. Many army leaders, nationalists, leaders in the clergy, and anti-Jewish groups refused to let the case be reopened. They feared sudden action would cast doubt on the honor of the army. Dreyfus’ defenders insisted that justice was more important. In 1898, the writer Emile Zola published an open letter titled J’accuse! (I accuse!) in a popular French newspaper. In the letter, Zola denounced the army for covering up a scandal. Zola was sentenced to a year in prison for his views, but his letter gave strength to Dreyfus’ cause. Eventually, the French government declared his innocence. Closure Question #3: What was the Dreyfus Affair? Summarize the event in your own words.
Zionism • Jewish national movement begun in the late 1800s; Zionists immigrated to Jerusalem in Palestine in hopes of regaining control of the traditional Jewish homeland. • Anti-Semitism, or hostility toward and discrimination against Jews, was not new to Europe. Since the Middle Ages, the Jews had been falsely portrayed by Christians as the murders of Jesus Christ and subjected to mob violence. Their rights had been restricted. They had been physically separated from Christians by being required to live in areas of cities known as ghettos. By the 1830s, the lives of many Jews had improved. They had legal equality in many European countries. They became bankers, lawyers, scientists, and scholars and were absorbed into the national culture. Old prejudices were still very much alive, though, and anti-Semitism grew stronger in the late 1800s. The intensity of anti-Semitism was evident from the Dreyfus affair in France. In 1894, a military court found Dreyfus, a captain in the French general staff, guilty of selling army secrets. During the trial, angry right-wing mobs yelled anti-Semitic sayings such as “Death to the Jews.” After the trial evidence emerged that proved Dreyfus innocent. A wave of public outcry finally forced the government to pardon Dreyfus in 1899. • The Dreyfus case showed the strength of anti-Semitism in France and other parts of Western Europe. However, persecution of Jews was even more severe in Eastern Europe. Russian officials permitted pogroms, organized campaigns of violence against Jews. From the late 1880s on, thousands of Jews fled Eastern Europe. Many headed for the United States. For many Jews, the long history of exile and persecution convinced the to work for a homeland in Palestine. In the 1890s, a movement known as Zionism developed to pursue this goal. Its leader was Theodor Herzl, a writer in Vienna. It took many years, however, before the state of Israel was established.
Closure Assignment #1 • Answer the following questions based on what you have learned from Chapter 26, Section 1: • Why was the road to democracy more difficult for France than for England? • What was the Dreyfus Affair? Summarize the event in your own words. • What was the connection between anti-Semitism and Zionism?
Dominion • A nation which is self-governing in domestic (local) affairs but remains part of a larger empire. During the mid-1800s Canada became a dominion, with its own national government though it continued to be a part of the British Empire. • Canada was originally home to many Native American peoples. The first European country to colonize Canada was France. The earliest French colonists, in the 1600s and 1700s, had included many fur trappers and missionaries. They tended to live among the Native Americans. Some French intermarried with Native Americans. Great Britain took possession of the country in 1763 after it defeated France in the French and Indian War. The French who remained lived mostly in the lower St. Lawrence Valley. Many English-speaking colonists arrived in Canada after it came under British rule. Some came from Great Britain, and others were Americans who had stayed loyal to Britain after the American Revolution. They settled separately from the French along the Atlantic seaboard and the Great Lakes. • Religious and cultural differences between the mostly Roman Catholic French and the mainly Protestant English-speaking colonists caused conflict in Canada. Both groups pressed Britain for a greater voice in governing their own affairs. In 1791 the British Parliament tried to resolve both issues by creating two new Canadian provinces. Upper Canada (now Ontario) had an English-speaking majority. Lower Canada (now Quebec) had a French-speaking majority. Each province had its own elected assembly. Closure Question #1: Why did Britain create Upper Canada and Lower Canada, and who lived in each colony?
Maori / Aborigines • Maori – Polynesian people who settled in New Zealand around 800 A.D. and developed a culture based on farming, hunting, and fishing. • Aborigines – Native peoples of Australia. Aborigines are the longest ongoing culture in the world and live as nomads, fishing, hunting and gathering food. • The British sea captain James Cook claimed New Zealand in 1769 and part of Australia in 1770 for Great Britain. Both lands were already inhabited; however, when Cook reached Australia he considered it to be void of human life. Britain began colonizing Australia in 1788 with convicted criminals. The prisons in England were severely overcrowded. To solve this problem, the British government established a penal colony in Australia. A penal colony was a place where convicts were sent to serve their sentences. Many European nations used penal colonies as a way to prevent overcrowding of prisons. After their release, the newly freed prisoners could buy land and settle. Closure Question #2: A) What was unusual about the first European settlers in Australia? B) Why do you think that Great Britain chose to send these settlers to Australia?
Home Rule • A goal of many Irish citizens to gain local control over internal matters while remaining a part of the British Empire. Great Britain, fearful that British Protestants living in Ireland might become targets of the Irish Catholic majority, refused to allow the establishment of a democratic self-government in Ireland prior to World War One. • English expansion into Ireland had begun in the 1100s, when the pope granted control of Ireland to the English king. English knights invaded Ireland, and many settled there to form a new aristocracy. The Irish, who had their own ancestry, culture, and language, bitterly resented the English presence. Laws imposed by the English in the 1500s and 1600s limited the rights of Catholics and favored the Protestant religion and the English language. Over the years, the British government was determined to maintain its control over Ireland. It formally joined Ireland to Britain in 1801. Though a setback for Irish nationalism, this move gave Ireland representation in the British Parliament. Irish leader Daniel O’Connell persuaded Parliament to pass the Catholic Emancipation Act in 1829. This law restored many rights to Catholics. • In the 1840s, Ireland experienced one of the worst famines of modern history. For many years, Irish peasants had depended on potatoes as virtually their sole source of food. From 1845 to 1848, a plant fungus ruined nearly all of Ireland’s potato crop. Out of a population of 8 million, about a million died from starvation and disease over the next few years. During the famine years, about a million and a half people fled from Ireland. Most went to the United States; others went to Britain, Canada, and Australia. At home, in Ireland, the British government enforced the demands of the English landowners that the Irish peasants pay their rent. Many Irish lost their land and fell hopelessly in debt, while large landowners profited from higher food prices. Closure Question #3: How was Britain’s policy toward Canada in the 1700s similar to its policy toward Ireland in the 1900s?
Irish Republican Army • Unofficial military force seeking independence for Ireland. Beginning in the middle of World War I, the IRA staged a series of attacks against British officials in Ireland. The attacks sparked a war between the nationalists and the British government. This conflict influenced British Parliament to divide Ireland and grant home rule to Irish Catholic southern Ireland. • One reason for Britain’s opposition to home rule was concern for Ireland’s Protestants. They feared being a minority in a country dominated by Catholics. Most Protestants lived in the northern part of Ireland, known as Ulster. Finally, in 1914, Parliament enacted a home rule bill for southern Ireland. Just one month before the plan was to take effect, World War I broke out in Europe. Irish home rule was put on hold. Frustrated over the delay in gaining independence, a small group of Irish nationalists rebelled in Dublin during Easter week, 1916. British troops put down the Easter Rising and executed its leaders. Their fate, however, aroused wider popular support for the nationalist movement. • After World War I, the Irish nationalists won a victory in the elections for the British Parliament. To protest delays in home rule, the nationalist members decided not to attend Parliament. Instead, they formed an underground Irish government and declared themselves independent. In 1921, Britain divided Ireland and granted home rule to southern Ireland. Ulster, or Northern Ireland, remained a part of Great Britain. The south became a dominion called the Irish Free State. However, many Irish nationalists, led by Eamon De Valera, continued to seek total independence from Britain. In 1949, the Irish Free State declared itself the independent Republic of Ireland. Closure Question #3: How was Britain’s policy toward Canada in the 1700s similar to its policy toward Ireland in the 1900s?
Closure Assignment #2 • Answer the following questions based on what you have learned from Chapter 26, Section 2: • Why did Britain create Upper Canada and Lower Canada, and who lived in each colony? • A) What was unusual about the first European settlers in Australia? B) Why do you think that Great Britain chose to send these settlers to Australia? • How was Britain’s policy toward Canada in the 1700s similar to its policy toward Ireland in the 1900s?
Manifest Destiny Closure Question #1: Who might have agreed with the idea of Manifest Destiny? Who might have disagreed? Explain your answers. • Term used to describe the belief that God wanted the United States to own all of North America. • Expansionists strongly supported the idea of Manifest Destiny, envisioning the expansion of liberty for white Americans. This expansion would come at the expense of Indians and Mexicans. • Expansionists argued that God had created Native Americans and Mexicans as inferiors to White Americans, and that they did not deserve to keep lands that were badly needed for American settlement. • In addition, many Southerners hoped to add more slaves states in the west to strengthen their political position in Congress. “The American claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and… self-government entrusted to us.” –John L. Sullivan, New York Morning News, December 27, 1845
Abraham Lincoln1811-1865 • Illinois Republican (Political party established to end slavery) and President from 1861 to 1865. The election of Lincoln directly led the slave-owning southern states to choose to secede, leading to the American Civil War. • Raised in rural poverty and largely self-taught, Lincoln began his political career at age 25, when he was elected to the Illinois State Legislature as a Whig. • By 1836, Lincoln was admitted to the Illinois bar as an attorney and practiced law in Springfield. There he gained a reputation for integrity and directness and was given the title “Honest Abe”. • Lincoln seemed to be opposed to slavery, but his political life was marked by a desire to steer a middle course. Lincoln served one term in the House of Representatives in the 1840’s but gained national fame for his opposition to the Kansas-Nebraska Act which was promoted by his rival politician, Stephen Douglas. Closure Question #2: How did Abraham Lincoln’s life reflect the basis of American democracy?
Secede / U.S. Civil War • Secede – “To withdraw”, in 1861 several southern states in the U.S.A. seceded from the union following the election of Abraham Lincoln, a Republican president who opposed slavery. • U.S. Civil War – (1861-1865) Following southern secession, Lincoln ordered the army of the United States to bring the rebel states back into the Union. More than 600,000 American men lost their lives in the conflict. Though the South had superior military leadership, the North had a larger population, better transportation, greater resources, and more factories. As a result, the North emerged victorious and the Union was restored. • By the mid-19th century, slavery had become a threat to American unity. Four million enslaved African Americans were in the South by 1860, compared with one million in 1800. The South’s economy was based on growing cotton on plantations, chiefly by slave labor. The cotton economy and plantation-based slavery were closely related. The disagreement over slavery fueled a debate about the rights of the individual states against those of the federal government. Southern politicians argued that the states had freely joined the Union, and so they could freely leave. Most Northerners felt that the Constitution had established the Union once and for all. Closure Question #3: What were the relative resources of the North and South in the U.S. Civil War?
Emancipation Proclamation • Formally announced on 9/22/1862, President Abraham Lincoln issued the military order proclaiming that all enslaves people in the Confederate states would be considered free by the United States on 1/1/1863. • The Proclamation did not apply to slaves in the loyal border states, nor did it truly give freedom to any slave in the Confederacy. It did give the Union army the authority to free any slave it came in contact with, but the slaves themselves had to escape from their masters to reach the army. Lincoln hoped that the order might convince some southern states to surrender before the January 1st deadline. The 54th Massachusetts Regiment was the first all African American unit in United States military history; by the war’s end more than 180,000 African American volunteers had served in the Union military. The Confederacy considered drafting slaves and free blacks in 1863 and 1864, but most southerners opposed the enlistment of African Americans. • In the aftermath of the war, the U.S. Congress passed the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which abolished slavery in the United States. The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments extended the rights of citizenship to all Americans and guaranteed former slaves the right to vote. The need for mass production and distribution of goods during the Civil War speeded industrialization. After the war, the United States experienced industrial expansion unmatched in history. By 1914, it was a leading industrial power.
Segregation • Forced separation of individuals according to their race. In the aftermath of the Civil War all of the states which had seceded, and many states which had not, passed laws mandating that African Americans use separate public facilities than other citizens. • Mandated by Reconstruction state constitutions, public schools grew slowly, drawing in only about half of southern children by the end of the 1870s. Establishing a new school was expensive, especially since southerners chose to establish segregated schools. Still, the establishment of a public school system in the south was a major achievement of the Reconstruction Era. From 1865 to 1877, Union troops occupied the South and enforced the constitutional protections. This period is called Reconstruction. After federal troops left the South, white Southerners passed laws that limited African Americans’ rights and made it difficult for them to vote. Such laws also encouraged segregation, or separation, of blacks and whites in the South. African Americans continued to face discrimination in the North as well.
Closure Assignment #3 • Answer the following questions based on what you have learned from Chapter 26, Section 3: • Who might have agreed with the idea of Manifest Destiny? Who might have disagreed? Explain your answers. • How did Abraham Lincoln’s life reflect the basis of American democracy? • What were the relative resources of the North and South in the U.S. Civil War?
Assembly Line • Assembly Line – An efficient manufacturing method pioneered by American Henry Ford in 1913; Assembly Line production places a product on a conveyor belt and has individuals at various stations along the belt responsible to attach one specific part. • Mass Production is the business practice of producing large quantities of identical products which can be made quickly and cheaply. By the 1880s, streetcars and subways powered by electricity had appeared in major European cities. Electricity transformed the factory as well. Conveyor belts, cranes, and machines could all be powered by electricity. With electric lights, factories could remain open 24 hours a day. The development of the internal-combustion engine, fired by oil and gasoline, provided a new source of power in transportation. This engine gave rise to ocean liners with oil-fired engines, as well as to the airplane and the automobile. In 1903 Orville and Wilbur Wright made the first flight in a fixed-wing plane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. In 1919 the first regular passenger air service was established. • Industrial production grew at a rapid pace because of greatly increased sales of manufactured goods. Europeans could afford to buy more consumer products for several reasons. Wages for workers increased after 1870. In addition, prices for manufactured goods were lower because of reduced transportation costs. One of the biggest reasons for more efficient production was the assembly line. In the cities, the first department stores began to sell a new range of consumer goods. These goods – clocks, bicycles, electric lights, and typewriters, for example – were made possible by the steel and electrical industries. Closure Question #1: What effects did the assembly line have on production costs?
Charles Darwin / Theory of Evolution • Charles Darwin – British biologist who, in 1859, published On the Origin of Species, teaching his Theory of Evolution, i.e. that each species, or kind, of plant and animal had evolved over a long period of time from earlier, simpler forms of life. • Natural Selection – Part of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution; Darwin believed that all organisms struggle for existence and that, in order to survive, they change to adapt to their environment. Those that don’t adapt become extinct. According to Darwin, those organisms that are naturally selected for survival (“survival of the fittest”) reproduce and thrive. The unfit do not survive. The fit that survive pass on the variations that enabled them to survive until, according to Darwin, a new separate species emerges. In The Descent of Man, published in 1871, Darwin argued that human beings had animal origins and were not an exception to the rule governing other species. • Darwin’s ideas raised a storm of controversy. Some people did not take his ideas seriously. Other people objected that Darwin’s theory made human beings ordinary products of nature rather than unique creations of God. Others were bothered by his idea of life as a mere struggle for survival. “Is there a place in Darwinism for moral values?” they asked. Some believers felt Darwin had not acknowledged God’s role in creation. Some detractors scorned Darwin and depicted him unfavorably in cartoons. Gradually, however, many scientists and other intellectuals came to accept Darwin’s theory. His theory changed thinking in countless fields from biology to anthropology. Closure Question #2: Besides competing for food, what are some of the other conditions to which species must adapt? Provide at least 3.
Radioactivity • Energy released by the elements radium and polonium. Marie and Pierre Curie, a French husband and wife team, discovered the two elements, earning the Nobel Prize for physics in 1903. • Throughout much of the 1800s, Westerners believed in a mechanical conception of the universe that was based on the ideas of Isaac Newton. In this perspective, the universe was viewed as a giant machine. Time, space, and matter were objective realities existing independently of those observing them. Matter was thought to be made of solid material bodies called atoms. These views were seriously questioned at the end of the 19th century. The French scientist Marie Curie discovered that an element called radium gave off energy, or radiation, that apparently came from within the atom itself. Atoms were not simply hard material bodies but small, active worlds. • In 1803, the British chemist John Dalton theorized that all matter is made of tiny particles called atoms. Dalton showed that elements contain only one kind of atom, which as a specific weight. Compounds, on the other hand, contain more than one kind of atom. In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev, a Russian chemist, organized a chart on which all the known elements were arranged in order of weight, from lightest to heaviest. He left gaps where he predicted that new elements would be discovered. Later, his predictions proved correct. Mendeleev’s chart, the Periodic Table, is still used today. Physicists around 1900 continued to unravel the secrets of the atom. Earlier scientists believed that he atom was the smallest particle that existed. A British physicist named Ernest Rutherford suggested that atoms were made up of yet smaller particles. Each atom, he said, had a nucleus surrounded by one or more particles called electrons. Soon other physicists such as Max Planck, Neils Bohr, and Albert Einstein were studying the structure and energy of atoms.
Psychology • The study of the human mind and behavior. Psychology developed as a unique social science in the late 19th century thanks to the work of Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, who theorized that human actions were often unconscious reactions to experiences and could be changed by training, and Austrian doctor Sigmund Freud, who believed that unconscious forces, such as suppressed memories, desires, and impulses shape human behavior. Freud founded psychoanalysis as a therapy to deal with psychological conflicts. • Sigmund Freud, a doctor from Vienna, proposed theories regarding the nature of the human mind. Freud’s ideas, like the new physics, added to the uncertainties of the age. His major theories were published in 1900 in The Interpretation of Dreams. According to Freud, human behavior was strongly determined by past experiences and internal forces of which people were largely unaware. Repression of such experiences began in childhood, so he devised a method – known as psychoanalysis – by which a therapist and patient could probe deeply into the patient’s memory. In this way, they could retrace the chain of repressed thoughts all the way back to their childhood origins. If the patient’s conscious mind could be made aware of the unconscious and its repressed contents, the patient could be healed. • Rapid advances in science, psychology, and the arts caused people to question previous knowledge and created a culture of modernity. While scientists such as Marie Curie and Albert Einstein were reshaping people’s understanding of the external world, Sigmund Freud was shaping their perceptions of the internal world – the inner workings of the mind. Freud believed that the mind had both conscious and unconscious parts, and that the unconscious controls many human behaviors. Painful memories from childhood became rooted, or repressed, in the unconscious, leading to mental illness. To help the person heal, these memories must be brought to conscious awareness. Freud believed that memories buried in the unconscious emerge in disguised form in dreams. One way to gain access to repressed memories, then, is to interpret dreams.
Mass Culture • The appeal of art, writing, music, and other forms of entertainment to a larger audience. The rise of the middle-class which was sparked by the Industrial Revolution led to an increase in the amount of leisure time available to citizens worldwide. In the late 19th century this leisure time was spent in music halls, at vaudeville performances, in movie theaters, and at sporting events. • There were several causes for the rise of mass culture. Their effects changed life in Europe and North America. The demand for leisure activities resulted in a variety of new pursuits for people to enjoy. A popular leisure activity was a trip to the local music hall. On a typical evening, a music hall might offer a dozen or more different acts. It might feature singers, dancers, comedians, jugglers, magicians, and acrobats. In the United States, musical variety shows were called vaudeville. Vaudeville acts traveled from town to town, appearing at theaters. • During the 1880s, several inventors worked at trying to project moving images. One successful design came from France. Another came from Thomas Edison’s laboratory. The earliest motion pictures were black and white and lasted less than a minute. By the early 1900s, filmmakers were producing the first feature films. Movies quickly became big business. By 1910, five million Americans attended some 10,000 theaters each day. The European movie industry experienced similar growth. With time at their disposal, more people began to enjoy sports and outdoor activities. Spectator sports now became entertainment. In the United States, football and baseball soared in popularity. In Europe, the first professional soccer clubs formed and drew big crowds. Favorite English sports such as cricket spread to the British colonies in Australia, India, and South Africa. Closure Question #3: How is the mass culture that rose at the end of the 19th century similar to mass culture today? How is it different? Explain your response.
Closure Assignment #4 • Answer the following questions based on what you have learned from Chapter 26, Section 4: • What effects did the assembly line have on production costs? • Besides competing for food, what are some of the other conditions to which species must adapt? Provide at least 3. • How is the mass culture that rose at the end of the 19th century similar to mass culture today? How is it different? Explain your response.
Imperialism • The extension of a nation’s power over other lands. • In the 19th century , a new phase of Western expansion began. European nations began to view Asian and African societies as a source of industrial raw materials and a market for Western manufactured goods. In the 1880s, European states began an intense scramble for overseas territory. Europeans had set up colonies and trading posts in North America, South America, and Africa by the 16th century. However, the imperialism of the 19th century, called the “new imperialism” by some, was different. Earlier, European states had been content, especially in Africa and Asia, to set up a few trading posts where they could carry on trade and perhaps some missionary activity. Now they sought nothing less than direct control over vast territories. • Why did Westerners begin to increase their search for colonies after 1880? There was a strong economic motive. Capitalist states in the West were looking for both markets and raw materials such as rubber, oil, and tin for their industries. The issue was not simply an economic one, however. European nation-states were involved in heated rivalries. They acquired colonies abroad in order to gain an advantage over their rivals. Colonies were also a source of national prestige. To some people, in fact, a nation could not be great without colonies. In addition, imperialism was tied to Social Darwinism and racism. Social Darwinists believed that in the struggle between nations, the fit are victorious. Racism is the belief that race determines traits and capabilities. Racists erroneously believe that particular races are superior or inferior. Some Europeans took a more religious and humanitarian approach to imperialism. They believed Europeans had a moral responsibility to civilize primitive people. They called this responsibility the “white man’s burden.” To some, this meant bringing the Christian message to the “heathen masses.” To others, it meant bringing the benefits of Western democracy and capitalism to these societies.
David Livingstone / Henry Stanley • David Livingstone – British doctor, Christian missionary, and explorer who trekked through uncharted regions of the interior of Africa. • Henry Stanley – American journalist who traveled to Africa to find Livingstone and, following Livingstone’s death in 1873, continued exploration and encouraged European settlement of Central Africa. • Central African territories were soon added to the list of European colonies. Explorers aroused popular interest in the dense tropical jungles of Central Africa. Livingstone was one such explorer. He arrived in Africa in 1841 as a 27-year-old medical missionary. During the 30 years he spent in Africa, Livingstone trekked through uncharted regions. He sometimes traveled by canoe, but mostly Livingstone walked and spent much of his time exploring the interior of the continent. During his travels through Africa, Livingstone made detailed notes of his discoveries. He sent this information back to London whenever he could. The maps of Africa were often redrawn based on Livingstone’s reports. A major goal of Livingstone’s explorations was to find a navigable river that would open Central Africa to European commerce and Christianity. • When Livingstone disappeared for awhile, an American newspaper, the New York Herald, hired a young journalist, Henry Stanley, to find the explorer. Stanley did find him on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika. Overwhelmed by finding Livingstone alive if not well, Stanley greeted the explorer with these now famous words, “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?” After Livingstone’s death in 1873, Stanley remained in Africa to carry on the great explorer’s work. Unlike Livingstone, however, Henry Stanley had a strong dislike of Africa. He once said, “I detest the land most heartily.” In the 1870s, Stanley explored the Congo River in Central Africa and sailed down it to the Atlantic Ocean. Soon, he was encouraging the British to send settlers to the Congo River basin. When Britain refused, Stanley turned to King Leopold II of Belgium. • Leopold was the real driving force behind colonization of Central Africa. He rushed enthusiastically into the pursuit of an empire in Africa. “To open to civilization,” he said, “the only part of our globe where it has not yet penetrated, to pierce the darkness which envelopes whole populations is a crusade, if I may say so, a crusade worthy of this century of progress.” Profit, however, was equally important to Leopold. In 1876 he hired Henry Stanley to set up Belgian settlements in the Congo. Leopold’s claim to the vast territories of the Congo aroused widespread concern among other European states. France, in particular, rushed to plant its flag in the hear of Africa. Leopold ended up with the territories around the Congo River. France occupied the areas farther north.
Racism / Social Darwinism • Racism – The belief that race determines traits and capabilities and that particular races are superior or inferior. • Social Darwinism – Theory that Darwin’s theory of natural selection can be applied to the interaction of individuals and nations. The strong people and nations were meant to rule the world, while the weak were meant to be dominated or become extinct. • Several factors contributed to the Europeans’ conquest of Africa. One overwhelming advantage was the Europeans’ technological superiority. The Maxim gun, invented in 1884, was the world’s first automatic machine gun. European countries quickly acquired the Maxim, while the resisting Africans were forced to rely on outdated weapons. European countries also had the means to control their empire. The invention of the steam engine allowed Europeans to easily travel on rivers to establish bases of control deep in the African continent. Railroads, cables, and steamships allowed close communications within a colony and between the colony and its controlling nation. • Even with superior arms and steam engines to transport them, another factor might have kept Europeans confined to the coast. They were highly susceptible to malaria, a disease carried by the dense swarms of mosquitoes in Africa’s interior. The perfection of the drug quinine in 1829 eventually protected Europeans from becoming infected with the disease. Factors within Africa also made the continent easier for Europeans to colonize. Africans’ huge variety of languages and cultures discouraged unity among them. Wars fought between ethnic groups over land, water, and trade rights also prevented a unified stand. Europeans soon learned to play rival groups against each other.
Closure Question #1:List the ways in which the French system of direct rule included Africans. (At least 2 answers) • The French had colonies in North Africa. In 1870, after about 150,000 French people had settled in the region of Algeria, the French government established control there. Two years later, France imposed a protectorate on neighboring Tunisia. In 1912 France established a protectorate over much of Morocco. • Most European nations governed their African possessions through a form of direct rule. This was true in the French colonies. At the top was a French official, usually known as a governor-general. He was appointed from Paris and governed with the aid of bureaucracy in the capital city of the colony. • The French ideal was to assimilate African subjects into French culture rather than preserve native traditions. Africans were eligible to run for office and even serve in the French National Assembly in Paris. A few were also appointed to high-powered positions in the colonial administration.
Berlin Conference • Meeting of 14 European nations in 1884 and 1885 to lay down the rules for the division of Africa. The nations agreed that any European country could claim land in Africa by notifying other nations of its claims and showing it could control the area. The conference that European nations would not go to war with each other over African territory. By 1914, only Liberia and Ethiopia remained free from European control. • When European countries began colonizing, many believed that Africans would soon be buying European goods in great quantities. They were wrong; few Africans bought European goods. However, European businesses still needed raw materials from Africa. The major source of great wealth in African proved to be the continent’s rich mineral resources. The Belgian Congo contained untold wealth in copper and tin. Even these riches seemed small compared with the gold and diamonds in South Africa. Businesses eventually developed cash-crop plantations to grow peanuts, palm oil, cocoa, and rubber. These products displaced the food crops grown by farmers to feed their families. • The motives that drove colonization in Africa were also at work in other lands. Similar economic, political, and social forces accelerated the drive to take over land in all parts of the globe. The Industrial Revolution in particular provided European countries with a reason to add lands to their control. As European nations industrialized, they searched for new markets and raw materials to improve their economies.
Closure Question #2: What can you conclude from the fact that African delegates were not included in the Berlin Conference of 1884? (At least 1 sentence) • By 1885, Britain and Germany had become the chief rivals in East Africa. Germany came late to the ranks of the imperialist powers. At first, the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck had downplayed the importance of colonies. As more and more Germans called for a German empire, however, Bismarck became a convert to colonialism. As he expressed it, “All this colonial business is a sham, but we need it for the elections.” • In addition to its West African holdings, Germany tried to develop colonies in East Africa. Most of East Africa had not yet been claimed by any other power. However, the British were also interested in the area because control of East Africa would connect the British Empire in Africa from South Africa to Egypt. Portugal and Belgium also claimed parts of East Africa. • To settle conflict claims, the Berlin Conference met in 1884 and 1885. The conference officially recognized both British and German claims for territory in East Africa. Portugal received a clear claim on Mozambique. No African delegates, however, were present at this conference.
Shaka Zulu • Chief of the Zulu tribe in southern Africa during the early 19th century. Shaka used highly disciplined warriors and good military organization to create a large centralized state by 1816 which withstood attempts by the British to colonize their homeland. However, Shaka’s successors were unable to keep the kingdom together and, facing superior weaponry such as the Maxim Gun (the first automatic machine gun), the Zulus fell under British control by 1887. • Nowhere in Africa did the European did the European presence grow more rapidly than in the south. By 1865, the total white population of South Africa had risen to nearly 200,000 people. The Boers, or Afrikaners – as the descendants of the original Dutch settlers were called – had occupied Cape Town and surrounding areas in South Africa since the 17th century. During the Napoleonic Wars, however, the British seized these lands from the Dutch. Afterward, the British encouraged settlers to come to what they called Cape Colony. • In the 1830s, disgusted with British rule, the Boers moved from the coastal lands and headed northward on the Great Trek. Altogether one out of every five Dutch speaking South Africans joined the trek. Their parties eventually settled in the region between the Orange and Vaal Rivers and in the region north of the Vaal River. In these areas, the Boers formed two independent republics – the Orange Free State and the Transvaal (later called the South African Republic).
Boers / Boer War • Boers – “Farmers”; Dutch settlers who gradually took Africans’ lands in South Africa during the 17th and 18th centuries. The Boers clashed with the British regarding land and the practice of slavery, a practice which the Boers supported. • Boer War – (1899-1910) Conflict between the Boers and the British following the discovery of gold and diamonds in South Africa. The Boers launched commando raids and used guerrilla tactics against the British. The British countered by burning Boer farms and imprisoning women and children in disease-ridden concentration camps. Britain finally won the war and formed the Union of South Africa. • The Boers believed that white superiority was ordained by God. They denied non-Europeans any place in their society other than as laborers or servants. As they settled the lands, the Boers put many of the indigenous peoples in these areas on reservations. The Boers had frequently battled the Zulu people. In the early 19th century, the Zulu, under a talented ruler named Shaka, had carved out their own empire. Even after Shaka’s death, the Zulu remained powerful. Finally, in the late 1800s, the British military became involved in conflicts with the Zulu & defeated them. • In the 1880s, British policy in South Africa was influenced by Cecil Rhodes. Rhodes had founded diamond and gold companies that had made him a fortune. He gained control of a territory north of the Transvaal, which he named Rhodesia after himself. Rhodes was a great champion of British expansion. He said once, “I think what God would like me to do is to paint as much of Africa British red as possible.” One of Rhode’s goals was to create a series of British colonies “from Cape to Cairo” – all linked by a railroad.
Closure Question #3: Why do you think the Boers resisted British rule? (At least 1 sentence) • Cecil Rhodes ambitions eventually led to his downfall in 1896. The British government forced him to resign as prime minister of Cape Colony after discovering that he planned to overthrow the Boer government of the South African Republic without his government’s approval. The British action was too late to avoid a war between the British and the Boers however. • This war, called the Boer War, dragged on from 1899 to 1902. Fierce guerrilla resistance by the Boers angered the British. They responded by burning crops and herding about 120,000 Boer women and children into detention camps, where lack of food caused some 20,000 deaths. Eventually, the vastly larger British army won. A peace treaty was signed in 1902. • In 1910 the British created an independent Union of South Africa, which combined the old Cape Colony and the Boer republics. The new state would be a self-governing nation within the British Empire. To appease the Boers, the British agreed that only whites, with a few propertied Africans, would vote.
Closure Assignment #5 • Answer the following questions based on the information covered in Chapter 21, Section 2: • List the ways in which the French system of direct rule included Africans. (At least 2 answers) • What can you conclude from the fact that African delegates were not included in the Berlin Conference of 1884? (At least 1 sentence) • Why do you think the Boers resisted British rule? (At least 1 sentence)
Paternalism • European policy towards African colonies which was based on the view that Africans were unable to handle the complex business of running a country. Europeans governed people in a parental way by providing for their needs but not giving them rights. To accomplish this, Europeans brought in their own bureaucrats and did not train local people in European methods of governing. • The Imperialism of the 18th and 19th centuries was conducted differently from the explorations of the 15th and 16th centuries. In the earlier periods, imperial powers often did not penetrate far into the conquered areas in Asia and Africa. Nor did they always have a substantial influence on the lives of the people. During this new period of imperialism, the Europeans demanded more influence over the economic, political, and social lives of the people. They were determined to shape the economies of the lands to benefit European economies. They also wanted the people to adopt European customs. • Each European nation had certain policies and goals for establishing colonies. To establish control of an area, Europeans used different techniques. Over time, four forms of colonial control emerged: colony, protectorate, sphere of influence, and economic imperialism. In practice, gaining control of an area might involve the use of several of these forms. Closure Question #1: How was the policy of paternalism like Social Darwinism?
Assimilation • European imperial policy based on the idea that in time, the local populations in Africa would adopt the culture of their European or American rulers and become like them. To aid in this transition, all local schools, courts, and businesses were patterned after those of the ruling nation. In many cases, native Africans were obligated to abandon their native cultural practices and languages in order to gain greater acceptance and rights from their imperial rulers. • Western powers governed their new colonial empires by either indirect or direct rule. Their chief goals were to exploit the natural resources of the lands and to open up markets for their own manufactured goods. Sometimes a colonial power could realize its goals by cooperating with local political elites. For example, the Dutch East India Company used indirect rule in the Dutch East Indies. This made access to the region’s natural resources easier. Indirect rule was cheaper because fewer officials had to be trained and it affected local culture less. • However, indirect rule was not always possible. Some local elites resisted the foreign conquest. In these cases, the local elites were replaced with Western officials. Great Britain administered Burma directly through its colonial government in India. In Indochina, France used both systems. It imposed direct rule in southern Vietnam, but ruled indirectly through the emperor in northern Vietnam. To justify their conquests, Western powers spoke of bringing the blessings of Western civilization of their colonial subjects, including representative government. However, many Westerners came to fear the idea of native peoples (especially educated ones) being allowed political rights. Closure Question #2: Do you think Europeans could have conquered Africa if the Industrial Revolution had never occurred? Explain your answer.
Menelik II • Emperor of Ethiopia in the late 19th century; Under Menelik’s leadership Ethiopia became the only African nation that successfully resisted the Europeans. He successfully played Italians, French, and British against each other, all of whom were striving to bring Ethiopia into their spheres of influence. He built up a large arsenal of modern weapons purchased from France and Russia. In 1896, at the Battle of Adowa, Ethiopian forces successfully defeated the Italians and kept their nation independent. • The unsuccessful resistance attempts included active military resistance and resistance through religious movements. Algeria’s almost 50-year resistance to French rule was one outstanding example of active resistance. The resistance movement led by Samori Toure in West Africa against the French is another example. After modernizing his army, Toure fought the French for 16 years. Africans in German East Africa put their faith in spiritual defense. African villages resisted Germans’ insistence that they plant cotton, a cash crop for export, rather than attend to their own food crops. In 1905, the belief suddenly arose that a magic water sprinkled on their bodies would turn the Germans’ bullets into water. The uprising became known as the Maji Maji rebellion. Over 20 different ethnic groups united to fight for their freedom. The fighters believed that their war had been ordained by God and that their ancestors would return to life and assist their struggle. Closure Question #3: Why would the French and Russians sell arms to Ethiopia?
Closure Assignment #6 • Answer the following questions based on what you have learned from Chapter 27, Section 2: • How was the policy of paternalism like Social Darwinism? • Do you think Europeans could have conquered Africa if the Industrial Revolution had never occurred? Explain your answer. • Why would the French and Russians sell arms to Ethiopia?
Geopolitics • An interest in or taking of land for its strategic location or products. Geopolitics played an important role in the fate of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans controlled access to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic sea trade. Discovery of oil in Persia around 1900 and in the Arabian Peninsula after World War I focused even more attention on the area. • The declining Ottoman Empire had difficulties trying to fit into the modern world. However, the Ottomans made attempts to change before they finally were unable to hold back the European imperialist powers. When Suleyman I, the last great Ottoman sultan, died in 1566, he was followed by a succession of weak sultans. The palace government broke up into a number of quarreling, often corrupt factions. Weakening power brought other problems. Corruption and theft had caused financial losses. Coinage was devalued, causing inflation. Once the Ottoman Empire had embraced modern technologies, but now it fell further and further behind Europe. • When Selim III came into power in 1789, he attempted to modernize the army. However, the old janissary corps resisted his efforts. Selim III was overthrown, and reform movements were temporarily abandoned. Meanwhile, nationalist feelings began to stir among the Ottoman’s subject peoples. IN 1830, Greece gained its independence, and Serbia gained self-rule. The Ottomans’ weakness was becoming apparent to European powers, who were expanding their territories. They began to look for ways to take the lands away from the Ottomans.
Crimean War • Conflict between Russia and the Ottoman Empire during the mid-19th century. Russia’s motivation to begin the war was to gain access to a warm-weather port on the Black Sea. Britain and France wanted to prevent the Russians from gaining control of Ottoman lands, so they entered the war on the side of the Ottoman Empire. The combined forces of the Ottoman Empire, Britain, and France defeated Russia. Though victorious, the war revealed the Ottomans’ military weakness, and the Ottomans continued to lose territory until their government was ended following World War I. • The Crimean War was the first war in which women, led by Florence Nightingale, established their position as army nurses. It was also the first war to be covered by newspaper correspondents. Despite the help of Britain and France, the Ottoman Empire continued to lose lands. The Russians came to the aid of Slavic people in the Balkans who rebelled against the Ottomans. The Ottomans lost control of Romania, Montenegro, Cyprus, Bosnia, Herzegovina, and an area that became Bulgaria. The Ottomans lost land in Africa too. By the beginning of World War I, the Ottoman Empire was reduced in size and in deep decline.
Suez Canal • A human-made waterway that cut through the Isthmus of Suez, connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. It was built mainly with French money from private interest groups, using Egyptian labor. The Suez Canal opened in 1869 with a huge international celebration. However, efforts by Egypt’s leaders to modernize their country, such as irrigation projects and communications networks, were enormously expensive. In debt more than $450 million, Egypt accepted British occupation in 1882. • Muhammad Ali was an officer of the Ottoman army who, in 1805, seized power and established Egypt as an independent nation. Before 1880, Europeans controlled little of the African continent directly. They were content to let African rulers and merchants represent European interests. Between 1880 and 1900, however, Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Spain and Portugal, spurred by intense rivalries among themselves, placed virtually all of African under European rule. • Egypt had been part of the Ottoman Empire, but as Ottoman rule declined, the Egyptians sought their independence. In 1805, an officer of the Ottoman army named Muhammad Ali seized power and established a separate Egyptian state. During the next 30 years, Muhammad Ali introduced a series of reforms to bring Egypt into the modern world. He modernized the army, set up a public school system, and helped create small industries that refined sugar, produced textiles and munitions, and built ships. Closure Question #1: Why did Great Britain want to control the Suez Canal?
Sepoys • Sepoys – Indian soldiers hired by the British East India Company to protect the company’s interests in India. • Kanpur was the site of the massacre of 200 defenseless British women and children by Indian revolutionaries. This event, along with other atrocities, led the British government to directly control India in 1876. Over the course of the 18th century, British power in India had increased while the power of the Mongol rulers had declined. The British government gave a trading company, the British East India Trading Company, power to become actively involved in India’s political and military affairs. To rule India, the British East India Company had its own soldiers and forts. It also hired Indian soldiers, known as sepoys, to protect the company’s interests in the region. In 1857 a growing Indian distrust of the British led to a revolt. The British call the revolt the Sepoy Mutiny. Indians call it the First War of Independence. Neutral observers label it the Great Rebellion. • The major immediate cause of the revolt was a rumor that the troops’ new rifle cartridges were greased with cow and pig fat. The cow was sacred to Hindus. The pig was taboo to Muslims. To load a rifle at that time, soldiers had to bite off the end of the cartridge. To the sepoys, touching these greased cartridges to their lips would mean that they were polluted. A group of sepoys at an army post in Meerut, near Delhi, refused to load their rifles with the cartridges. The British charged them with mutiny, publicly humiliated them, and put them in prison. This treatment of their comrades enraged the sepoy troops in Meerut. They went on a rampage, killing 50 European men, women, and children. Soon other Indians joined the revolt, including Indian princes whose land the British had taken. • Within a year, however, Indian troops loyal to the British and fresh British troops had crushed the rebellion. Although Indian troops fought bravely and outnumbered the British by about 230,000 to 45,000, they were not well organized. Rivalries between Hindus and Muslims kept the Indians from working together. Atrocities were terrible on both sides. At Kanpur, Indians massacred 200 defenseless women and children in a building known as the House of the Ladies. Recapturing Kanpur, the British took their revenge before executing the Indians.
Closure Question #2: Do you think the benefits of British rule to India outweighed its costs? Support your answer. (At least 1 sentence) • The Indian people paid a high price for the peace and stability brought by British rule. Perhaps the greatest cost was economic. British entrepreneurs and a small number of Indians reaped financial benefits from British rule, but it brought hardships for millions of others in both the cities and the countryside. British manufactured goods destroyed local industries. British textiles put thousands of women out of work and severely damaged the Indian textile industry. In rural areas, the British sent zamindars to collect taxes. The British believed that using these local officials would make it easier to collect taxes from the peasants. • However, the zamindars in India took advantage of their new authority. They increased taxes and forced the less fortunate peasants to become tenants or lose their land entirely. The British also encouraged many farmers to switch from growing food to growing cotton. As a result, food supplies could not keep up with the growing population. Between 1800 and 1900, 30 million Indians died of starvation. Finally, British rule was degrading, even for the newly educated upper classes who benefited the most from it.
“Jewel in the Crown” • Term used by the British to describe India, which was considered the most valuable of all of Britain’s colonies. The Industrial Revolution had turned Britain into the world’s workshop, and India was a major supplier of raw materials for that workshop. Its 300 million people were also a large potential market for British made goods. • British rule in India had several benefits for subjects. It brought order and stability to a society badly divided into many states with different political systems. It also led to a fairly honest, efficient government. Through the efforts of the British administrator and historian Lord Thomas Macaulay, a new school system was set up. The new system used the English language. The goal of the new school system was to train Indian children to serve in the government and army. The new system served only elite, upper-class Indians, however. 90% of the population remained uneducated and illiterate. Railraods, the telegraph, and a postal service were introduced to India shortly after they appeared in Great Britain. In 1853 the first trial run of a passenger train traveled the short distance from Bombay to Thane. By 1900, 25,000 miles of railroads crisscrossed India. • The British set up restrictions that prevented the Indian economy from operating on its own. British policies called for India to produce raw materials for British manufacturing and to buy British goods. In addition, Indian competition with British goods was prohibited. For example, India’s own handloom textile industry was almost put out of business by imported British textiles. Cheap cloth from England flooded the Indian market and undercut local producers.
Sepoy Mutiny • (1857-1858) Violent uprising against British rule by the Sepoys. The revolt was sparked by a rumor that the cartridges for the rifles given to the Sepoys by the British were greased with beef and pork fat. Both Hindus, who consider the cow sacred, and Muslims, who do not eat pork, were outraged by the news. The Sepoys refused to use the cartridges and, as a result many were jailed by the British. Those that remained free responded by attacking the British, taking the city of Delhi. Finally, fresh British troops arrived and put down the uprising. • The first Indian nationalists were upper-class and English educated. Many of them were from urban areas, such as Bombay (Mumbai), Madras (Chennai), and Calcutta (Kolkata). At first, many Indian nationalists preferred reform to revolution. However, the slow pace of reform convinced many that relying on British goodwill was futile. In 1885 a small group of Indians met in Bombay to form the Indian National Congress. The INC had difficulties because of religious differences. The INC sought independence for all Indians, regardless of class or religious background. However, many of its leaders were Hindu and reflected Hindu concerns. Later, Muslims called for the creation of a separate Muslim League. Such a league would represent the interests of the millions of Muslims in Indian society. • The love-hate tension in India that arose from British domination led to a cultural awakening as well. The cultural revival began in the early 19th century with the creation of a British college in Calcutta. A local publishing house was opened. It issued textbooks on a variety of subjects, including the sciences, Sanskrit, and Western literature. The publisher also printed grammars and dictionaries in various Indian languages. This revival soon spread to other regions of India. It led to a search for a new national identity and a modern literary expression. Indian novelists and poets began writing historical romances and epics. Some wrote in English, but most were uncomfortable with a borrowed colonial language. They preferred to use their own regional tongues.