Process/Demonstration Speeches • The terms “process” and “demonstration” work together. “A process is a series of steps producing an outcome” (Grice 345).
Process/Demonstration Speeches • When speakers communicate with their audiences about a process, they may often “explain or demonstrate how something works, functions, or is accomplished” (345). • Thus, the goal of aprocess/demonstrationspeech is to demonstratea process.
Process/Demonstration Speeches • “Because a process is by definition a time-ordered sequence, speeches about processes commonly use chronological organization. They are not, however, confined to this pattern” (345). • The best organizational pattern for any speech “is the one that achievesthe purpose of thespeech” (345).
Process/Demonstration Speeches • For example, if a speaker chooses to discuss the topic good study habits lead to good grades, he will probably discuss a series, or describe a process, of helpful study habits organized in a way that will lead students to achieve good grades.
Process/Demonstration Speeches • The organizational strategy may be somewhat chronological, but the speaker may also choose to organize his or her examples in a greatest to least, or most effective to least effective, structure.
Process/Demonstration Speeches • In addition, while discussing the process to achieve good grades, he will more than likely demonstrate study strategies.
Process/Demonstration Speeches There are two types of process/demonstration strategies: the directional and the informational process. • In the directional speech style,speakers show and instruct thesteps of the process, so theaudience could actually recreatethe process after they havebeen shown how.
Process/Demonstration Speeches There are two types of process/demonstration strategies: the directional and the informational process. • The informational processspeech style informs,educates, analyzes andexplains. • Speakers whouse this speech styledescribe the theory of how something was doneor is done, is made, worksor happens.
Process/Demonstration Speeches • Speakers creating process/demonstration speechesshould focus on educatingand helping their audiencesto understand their topic.
Process/Demonstration Speeches • The best strategy is to chooseprocess/demonstrationspeech topics with which youare relatively familiar, orselect a topic you would liketo research.
Here are some helpful tips for creating process/demonstration speeches: • Choose something you know about • Use visual aids to demonstrate a process • When debating on what topic to choose, ask yourself this question: Does this topic haveenough potential tooffer my audience valuable information?
Here are some helpful tips for creating process/demonstration speeches: • Remember the importance of understanding your audience, and ask yourself these questions: • Who are they? • What are their interests? • What do they like? • What are their needs?
Here are some helpful tips for creating process/demonstration speeches: • Break your topic into presentable steps using key phrases: • How To Make ... • How To Fix ... • How To Use ... • How To Do ... • How _____Works • How_____ Is Done, Produced or Made • Topic + verb
Process/Demonstration Speech Organizational Strategies • Sequential: Your topic can be arranged in a time sequence. • This strategy is useful for describing a process as a series of steps or explaining a subject as a series of historical landmark developments. • This strategy is also useful forpresenting a plan ofaction in persuasivespeeches.
Process/Demonstration Speech Organizational Strategies— Sequential • A sequential design may be used to present the steps of a process or to provide an historical perspective on a subject. • When using a sequential designto present the steps in a process,you must first determine the necessary steps and the order in which they must take place. These steps become the main points of the speech.
Process/Demonstration Speech Organizational Strategies— Sequential • For an oral presentation, you should not try to discuss more than five steps. • If you have more than this, see if you can cluster some of them into subpoints. • Be sure to enumerate the steps as youpresent them so that the audience canfollow your message.
Process/Demonstration Speech Organizational Strategies— Sequential • When using a sequential design to present an historical perspective on a subject, be sure to follow a systematic chronological sequence. • Do not jump around in time (i.e. Start with 1990, jump back to 1942, fast forwardto 1971), or the speech will behard for your listeners to follow.
Process/Demonstration Speech Organizational Strategies—Sequential • You can either begin with the beginnings of a subject and trace it to a later point in time or begin with the present and trace the subject back to its origins. • When presenting an historical perspective, it is important to narrow your topic to manageable proportions by selecting the most important historical occurrences. Your speech should telescope time.
Process/Demonstration Speech Organizational Strategies— Categorical • Use the ‘Categorical’ strategy if your topic has natural or customary divisions. Each category becomes a main point for development. This strategy is useful when you need to organize large amounts of material.
Process/Demonstration Speech Organizational Strategies— Categorical • For example, thisstrategy in persuasivespeeches could be usedto demonstrate a planthat is safe, inexpensive,and effective, or todemonstrate a cause/effect scenario.
Process/Demonstration Speech Organizational Strategies—Categorical • You should use a categorical deign for subjects that have natural or customary divisions. This design allows you to organize large amounts of material into manageable format. • Do not use a categorical designby default—(Doing so may make you appear to be you appear to be a lazy speechwriter because you have avoidedtrying to create another way toarrange your information).
Process/Demonstration Speech Organizational Strategies— Categorical • When using a categorical design, each category becomes a main point for the development of your speech. • Limit yourself to five orfewer main points in ashort speech.
Process/Demonstration Speech Organizational Strategies—Categorical • You should begin and end with the most importantcategories since the first and last areas covered are the most easilyremembered.
Process/Demonstration Speech Organizational Strategies— Spatial • Your topic can be discussed by how it is positioned in a physical setting or natural environment. • This strategy allows you to take your audience on an orderly “oral tour” of your topic as you move from place to place.
Process/Demonstration Speech Organizational Strategies— Spatial • You should use spatial design when your subject involves places or objects that can be put in a physical arrangement.
Process/Demonstration Speech Organizational Strategies— Spatial • This design takes your listeners on a systematic and orderly tour of your subject or systematically describes an arrangement so that your audience may visualize it accurately.
Process/Demonstration Speech Organizational Strategies— Spatial • To develop the body of a speech using a spatial design, select a starting point and a direction of movement for the verbal journey on which you will take your listeners. • Move in an orderly manner. • Start a route and stay with it. • Try not to backtrack or jumpfrom place to place.
Process/Demonstration Speech Organizational Strategies— Spatial • Your speech should build ininterest as you move along tothe last place which shouldbe the most interesting.
Using Visual Aids • “The primary use of visual aids is to clarify and support the point being made orally by the speaker, as well as tobetter hold attention and interest. One should not think ofvisual aids as asubstitute for oral discourse, however” (Zelko 93-94).
Using Visual Aids • “A well-designed, appropriate presentational aid can add significantly to the effectiveness of the speech and the speaker” (Grice and Skinner 314).
Using Visual Aids • Using visual aids in the speech communication process can be very effective, especially today when technology allows speakers to very easily create highly effective multi-media presentations.
Using Visual Aids • However, not every facility is equipped to handle this kind of technology, and, even if the speaker brings his own equipment, he should have a back up plan in the event of an unforeseen technical crisis.
“Guidelines for designing presentational aids” • Focus on a few key points • Layout—landscape with text on top half • Highlighting—use bullets or numbering with as few words as possible • Fonts—use strong and straight fonts • Color and art—use a limited number of colors to enhance your presentational aid (328-329)
“During the Speech” • Reveal the aid only when you are ready for it • Talk to your audience—not the aid • Refer to the aid • Keep your aid in view untilthe audience understandsyour point • Conceal the aid after youhave made your point • Use handouts with caution (330)
Using Handouts • Many speakers feel providing their audiences with handouts will help them to further retain the information being presented, but the time of their distribution is critical. • As soon as the audience receives the handouts, even during the time of distribution, they will not be able to completely focus on the speaker.
Using Handouts • To manage this distraction, the speaker may want to distribute these handouts prior to his presentation or after he has finished. • The only other choice is to allow time to pause while the audience reviews the material on their own, or wait until all handouts have been distributed, and then review them together.
Using Props • Another valuable visual aid is a prop, which allows the speaker to use “fewer words [because the] object speak[s] for itself” (183).
Using Props • Like a handout, however, remember the prop will completely distract the audience, and the speaker must allow them time to focus on and understand its impact on the speech.
Using Props • First and foremost, the speaker must “be intimately familiar with the object and prepared. [He should] practice [using the prop] before a presentation” (183).
Using a Prop • In using models or objects, hold them up in clear view of the audience or place them on a table for all to see. Walk toward or into the audience with them as appropriate for closer viewing.
Using a Prop Using props allows you to use “fewer words and lets the object speak for itself.” “The two most important elements of using props are: • Be intimately familiar with the object. • Be prepared. Practice before a presentation.” (Clinton 183)
Other Visual Aids • Flip Charts • Overhead Projectors • Dry Erase Boards • Each presents its own challenges.
POWERPOINT • For your demonstration speech, you are required to use PowerPoint (Prezi or some other electronic visual), and the use of props or handouts is completely optional.
KEY TO DEMONSTRATION SPEECH SUCCESS… • THE KEY TO ANY SUCCESSFUL DEMONSTRATION SPEECH IS: PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE……..